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Discussion relating to Celtic Mythology

2014.12.08 03:01 Seabhac1 Discussion relating to Celtic Mythology

Celtic Mythology is a deep, rich and meaningful collection of folklore and fables, dating back thousands of years. The pantheon of celtic gods, goddesses, creatures, fables and folklore that make up Celtic Mythology give us some idea of the culture, beliefs and traditions of our Celtic ancestors. Celtic mythology has been passed down in the traditions, stories and culture of the eight modern celtic nations of Scotland, Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, Brittany, Asturias, Galicia and the Isle of Man.

2020.09.30 18:51 StevenStevens43 King Art Oenfer and Son

King Art Oenfer and Son
King Arthur:
In this article, i will be attempting to establish a probable root for the King Arthur legends.
I will mostly be looking at it from a historical worldly point of view, as opposed to the otherworldly.
I will also be looking to verify exactly how consistant with contemporary history, the legends are.
So i will begin with introducing King Arthur, who i am sure requires no introduction.
King Arthur
King Arthur (Welsh: Brenin Arthur, Cornish: Arthur Gernow, Breton: Roue Arzhur) was a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances), led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th and early 6th centuries. The details of Arthur's story are mainly composed of folklore and literary invention, and modern historians generally agree that he is unhistorical.[2][3] The sparse historical background of Arthur is gleaned from various sources, including the Annales Cambriae, the Historia Brittonum, and the writings of Gildas. Arthur's name also occurs in early poetic sources such as Y Gododdin.[4]
Link for photo
King Arthur
Father and son:
Now the first thing i find of interest, is the claim repeated by Geoffrey of Monmouth that the King Arthur was not one, but infact two.
Father and son.
And this is actually consistant with a couple of Irish high kings.
Art Oenfer:
The father is Art Oenfer.
Art mac Cuinn ("son of Conn"), also known as Art Óenfer (literally "one man", used in the sense of "lone", "solitary", or "only son"),[1] was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. .[9] The chronology of Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 143–173,
Cormac mac Airt:
And the son, Cormac mac Airt, whom is said to be the most famous Irish high king in Irish history, and many legends became attached to this figure.
Cormac mac Airt
Cormac mac Airt (son of Art), also known as Cormac ua Cuinn (grandson of Conn) or Cormac Ulfada (long beard), was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. He is probably the most famous of the ancient High Kings, and may have been an authentic historical figure, although many legends have attached themselves to him, Keating dates his reign to 204–244;
Wife rescue:
Now just to confirm that we are almost definitely talking about the same individuals here, i will point to the legend where King Arthur rescues his wife.
Pre gilfridian traditions
Arthur is said to have killed Gildas' brother Hueil and to have rescued his wife Gwenhwyfar from Glastonbury.[56]
Link for photo
King Arthur and his wife
Art Oenfer also conducts a mission to rescue his wife.
I will also include in the quote the otherworldly myths just to establish that just the same as King Arthur, Art Oenfer also has the otherworldly myths included in his biography.
Bé Chuille places a geis on Art, after he loses at a game of fidchell; under which he must leave Ireland never to return until he can find and rescue the maiden Delbchaem ("Fair Shape"). Art travels to the Land of Wonder, facing untold dangers and is forced to kill Delbchaem's mother a fearsome and supernatural figure, who has been foretold by druids that she would be killed by a suitor of her daughter. When Art and Delbchaem return to Tara, Delbchaem banishes Bé Chuille from the land, returning fertility to the region.[5]
Now when the legends talk about the otherworld, wonderland, or land of wonder, as depicted in quote above, i believe them to be referring to the Lake district.
And the reason for this comes from Art Oenfer's son, who is also said to have to visited the otherworld, in which he was lured with the promise of treasure, specifically a shining branch having nine apples of red gold.
In the tale Echtra Cormaic (Lady Gregory, GAFM IV.11 "His Three Calls to Cormac" ) the Irish King is tempted by the sea-god Manannan mac Lir with treasure, specifically a "shining branch having nine apples of red gold," in exchange for his family. Cormac is led into the Otherworld (Land of Promise) and taught a harsh lesson by Manannán, but in the end his wife and children are restored to him. Also, Manannán rewards him with a wonderful gold cup which breaks if three lies are spoken over it and is made whole again if three truths are spoken.[13]
Now what leads me to suspect this, is Westmorland city councils coat of Arms, which is a golden apple tree with a hook, which tells me the Irish legends are strong in this areas history.
Coat of arms
Westmorland County Council was granted a coat of arms by the College of Arms in 1926. The design of the shield referred to the two components of the county: on two red bars (from the arms of the de Lancaster family, Barons of Kendal) was placed a gold apple tree (from the seal of the borough of Appleby, for the Barony of Westmorland). The crest above the shield was the head of a ram of the local Herdwick) breed. On the ram's forehead was a shearman's hook, a tool used in the handling of wool. The hook was part of the insignia of the borough of Kendal, the administrative centre of the county council.[14]
Link for photo
Westmorland arms
The growing tree:
I believe that the golden apple tree is based upon the dream that Art Oenfer's wife shared with Art, the night before his death.
Birth and childhood
The story is told that Achtan had a vision as she slept next to Art. She saw herself with her head cut off and a great tree growing out of her neck. Its branches spread all over Ireland,
Now King Arthur is said to have fought a war against Saxons.
Whilst the Irish legends make no mention of Saxons, they do mention a foe of Art Oenfer's running to Britain and coming back with foreigners and murdering Art.
Art mac Cuinn
He made an alliance with Benne Brit, son of the king of Britain, raised an army of foreigners, and returned to Ireland. He defeated and killed Art in the Battle of Maigh Mucruimhe in Connacht.[6]
Link for photo
Death of Arthur
Oversea's conquests:
Now Cormac mac Airt becomes a legend in Ireland for his endless military victories.
He is also said to have conducted conquests on British mainland, aswell as going missing for periods.
I guess this is where the legends begin.
And this is where contemporary history comes in to play.
Cormac mac Airt
Cormac's reign is recorded in some detail in the Irish annals.[8] He fought many battles, subduing the Ulaid and Connacht and leading a lengthy campaign against Munster. In the fourteenth year of his reign he is said to have sailed to Britain and made conquests there. In the fifteenth, thirty maidens were slaughtered in Tara by Dúnlaing, king of Leinster, for which Cormac had twelve Leinster princes put to death. In other texts he is said to have been temporarily deposed twice by the Ulaid, and to have once gone missing for four months.
Tuathal Techtmar:
Now, i already done an article on Tuathal Techtmar, so i should not need to go in to too much detail.
But even contemporary historiand and scholars believe that just a generation before Art Oenfer's reign, an exiled Irish prince named Tuathal Techtmar was given support and an army to regain the Irish throne, in order for the Romans to have an Irish ally.
Tuathal did take the throne, though his son was removed.
Romans in Ireland
Taking the native dating as broadly accurate, another theory has emerged. The Roman historian Tacitus mentions that Agricola, while governor of Roman Britain (AD 78–84), entertained an exiled Irish prince, thinking to use him as a pretext for a possible conquest of Ireland.[10] Neither Agricola nor his successors ever conquered Ireland, but in recent years archaeology has challenged the belief that the Romans never set foot on the island. Roman and Romano-British artefacts have been found primarily in Leinster, notably a fortified site on the promontory of Drumanagh, fifteen miles north of Dublin, and burials on the nearby island of Lambay, both close to where Túathal is supposed to have landed, and other sites associated with Túathal such as Tara and Clogher. However, whether this is evidence of trade, diplomacy or military activity is a matter of controversy. It is possible that the Romans may have given support to Túathal, or someone like him, to regain his throne in the interests of having a friendly neighbour who could restrain Irish raiding.[5][11]
And the son of the king of Britain that would have been involved in supporting Tuathals descendant to re-regain the throne, would have been Roman emperor Marcus Aureliuses son Commodus who was in Germania at the time getting work experience by going to the headquarters of the Marcomannic wars with his father Marcus Aurelius.
Marcus Aurelius handed his victory title to his son, Commodus.
Therefore if Art Oenfer was killed by Saxons now under the thumb of Marcus Aurelius, then he probably also awarded his young son with this victory also.
Commodus is known to have been at Carnuntum, the headquarters of Marcus Aurelius during the Marcomannic Wars, in 172. It was presumably there that, on 15 October 172, he was given the victory title Germanicus), in the presence of the army. The title suggests that Commodus was present at his father's victory over the Marcomanni. On 20 January 175, Commodus entered the College of Pontiffs, the starting point of a career in public life.
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Commodus as a boy
Arthur conquers Scotland:
So, now on to the "unbelievable" and "fanciful" claims of Geoffrey of Monmouth.
Apparently King Arthur that has already reconquered Ireland, also conquered Scotland, culminating in Bath (England).
Geoffrey of Monmouth
culminating in the Battle of Bath. He then defeats the Picts and Scots before creating an Arthurian empire through his conquests of Ireland,
Link for photo
Arthurs Crown
Septimus Severus:
Now this would have been during the reign of Septimus Severus (Second name is pretty close to severn, which is pretty near Bath), and during this reign, Septimus Severus almost succeeded in conquering Scotland/Caledonia, however he was made to withdraw to Hadrians wall when the Caledonians took 50,000 Roman lives during this war.
But in actual fact, the Roman occupation was not everything we have been led to believe.
I will explain why, later, but for now, in actual fact, the Caledonians pushed the Romans farther than Hadrians wall, squeezing down the West coast, through Wales, and not far from Bath.
They simply cross over the Mountainous terrain.
From AD 117
The most notable was in 209 when the emperor Septimius Severus, claiming to be provoked by the belligerence of the Maeatae tribe, campaigned against the Caledonian Confederacy, a coalition of Brittonic Pictish[53] tribes of the north of Britain. He used the three legions of the British garrison (augmented by the recently formed 2nd Parthica legion), 9000 imperial guards with cavalry support, and numerous auxiliaries supplied from the sea by the British fleet, the Rhine fleet and two fleets transferred from the Danube for the purpose. According to Dio Cassius, he inflicted genocidal depredations on the natives and incurred the loss of 50,000 of his own men to the attrition of guerrilla tactics before having to withdraw to Hadrian's Wall.
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140 AD onwards
The war ended with Septimius Severus recognising Caledonia as a seperate country, and offering Caledonians a truce, which the Romans never broke, as after 209 AD, they made no more attempts to invade Caledonia.
From AD 117
thoroughness that led most subsequent Roman authors to attribute the construction of the wall to him. It was during the negotiations to purchase the truce necessary to secure the Roman retreat to the wall that the first recorded utterance, attributable with any reasonable degree of confidence, to a native of Scotland was made (as recorded by Dio Cassius).
Also he is supposed to have conquered Iceland aswell.
Well he would not have had much trouble with that, is it was pretty much uninhabited during his reign.
However evidence of inhabitation in Iceland actually does pre-date the first official settlers from Scandinavia, and is thought to have been already inhabited previous to that by Irish and Scottish monks known as the Papar.
Settlements and commonwealth
According to both Landnámabók and Íslendingabók, monks known as the Papar lived in Iceland before Scandinavian settlers arrived, possibly members of a Hiberno-Scottish mission. Recent archaeological excavations have revealed the ruins of a cabin in Hafnir on the Reykjanes peninsula). Carbon dating indicates that it was abandoned sometime between 770 and 880.[25]
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Iceland coat of Arms
And also the Orkneys, apparently.
Well, in actual fact it is not funny.
The Orkney's had in fact been under ownership of the Romans since 43 AD when the king of the Orkneys was one of the eleven kings of Britain to surrender to the Romans at Colchester.
Though there is no actual suggestion of an Irish invasion this early in history, so perhaps he simply obtained the Orkneys as part of the truce.
Iron age
During the Roman invasion of Britain the "King of Orkney" was one of 11 British leaders who is said to have submitted to the Emperor Claudius in AD 43 at Colchester.[40]
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Orkney Isles
He even conquered Scandinavia apparently.
And this is even written in Scandinavian Norse-Gaelic sources that made it's way to Wales. "Y Gododdin".
"God Odin".
Geoffrey of Monmouth
After twelve years of peace, Arthur sets out to expand his empire once more, taking control of Norway, Denmark
Link for photo
Y Gododdin Arthurian accounts
Ermanaric empire:
And someone must have laid the foundations for the Ermanaric empire, that the Romans loved to hate.
Ermanaric (Gothic: *Aírmanareiks; Latin: Ermanaricus or Hermanaricus; Old English: Eormanrīc [ˈeormɑnriːtʃ]; Old Norse: Jörmunrekr [ˈjɔrmunrekr]; died 376) was a Greuthungian Gothic King who before the Hunnic invasion evidently ruled a sizable portion of Oium, the part of Scythia inhabited by the Goths at the time. He is mentioned in two Roman sources; the contemporary writings of Ammianus Marcellinus and in Getica by the 6th-century historian Jordanes. Modern historians disagree on the size of Ermanaric's realm. Herwig Wolfram postulates that he at one point ruled a realm stretching from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea as far eastwards as the Ural Mountains.[1] Peter Heather is skeptical of the claim that Ermanaric ruled all Goths
Though, i fail to see the quandary Scholars and Historians have got themselves in to over the claim of whether or not Ermanaric truly was king of the Goths or not.
Quite simply, Gothland in Southern Sweden is not called Gothland for no reason.
It is the ancestral home of the Goths.
Gotland (/ˈɡɒtlənd/; Swedish: [ˈɡɔ̌tːland] (📷listen);[4] older spellings include Gottland /ˈɡɒtlənd/ or Gothland /ˈɡɒθlənd/;[5] Gutland in the local dialect)[6]
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Gothland coat of Arms
And also Gaul.
As i have revealed in other articles, Pre-roman Gaul was a large expanse.
Geoffrey of Monmouth
Gaul. Gaul is still held by the Roman Empire when it is conquered, and Arthur's victory leads to a further confrontation with Rome. Arthur and his warriors, including Kaius (Kay), Beduerus (Bedivere) and Gualguanus (Gawain), defeat the Roman emperor Lucius Tiberius in Gaul
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Pre roman Gaul
Non other worldly:
Now, i am going to go back to Art Oenfer and the lead up to his death.
I originally gave you the otherworldly version of his trip to Wonderland, to show you how it matches up with the otherworldly accounts of king Arthur.
But, now i am going to give you the non otherworldly version of Art Oenfer, and show you how it both matches up to King Arthur, and, contemporary history.
Another fairy woman, Bé Chuille, who had been banished to Ireland by the Tuatha Dé Danann, fell in love with Art, but, when she learned his father Conn was still alive and a widower, agreed to marry him instead, on the condition that Art be banished from Tara for a year.
166 AD:
It is quite likely that the campaign of 166 AD, against Marcus Aurelius was considered a huge victory for the Gauls, even invading Italy.
War with Germanic tribes)
Far more dangerous was the invasion of 166, when the Marcomanni of Bohemia, clients of the Roman Empire since 19 AD, crossed the Danube together with the Lombards and other Germanic tribes.[266] Soon thereafter, the Iranian Sarmatian Iazyges attacked between the Danube and the Theiss rivers.[267] The Costoboci, coming from the Carpathian area, invaded Moesia, Macedonia), and Greece. After a long struggle, Marcus managed to push back the invaders. Numerous members of Germanic tribes settled in frontier regions like Dacia, Pannonia, Germany, and Italy itself. This was not a new thing, but this time the numbers of settlers required the creation of two new frontier provinces on the left shore of the Danube, Sarmatia and Marcomannia, including today's Czechia, Slovakia, and Hungary. Some Germanic tribes who settled in Ravenna revolted and managed to seize possession of the city. For this reason, Marcus decided not only against bringing more barbarians into Italy, but even banished those who had previously been brought there.[268]
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Arthur rex
Pax Romana:
This was considered the end of Pax Romana, with Pax Romana being the Roman empires finest years.
Marcus Aurelius)
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (/ɔːˈriːliəs/ ə-REE-lee-əs;[1] 26 April 121 – 17 March 180) was Roman emperor from 161 to 180 and a Stoic philosopher. He was the last of the rulers known as the Five Good Emperors (a term coined some 13 centuries later by Niccolò Machiavelli), and the last emperor of the Pax Romana,
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Marcus Aurelius
King Arthur I's death:
Just as king Arthur is about to march upon Rome, he gets news his crown in Ireland has been stolen from him, so he heads home immediately and meets his death.
Do you remember earlier in the article Commodus won a military honour for his non part in defeating the Gauls, likely by having Tuathal Techtmars descendants march on Ireland?
Geoffrey of Monmouth
as he prepares to march on Rome, Arthur hears that his nephew Modredus (Mordred)—whom he had left in charge of Britain—has married his wife Guenhuuara (Guinevere) and seized the throne. Arthur returns to Britain and defeats and kills Modredus on the river Camblam in Cornwall, but he is mortally wounded.
King Arthur II:
During the Parthian war, Roman emperor Caracella was assassinated at the behest of Artabanus V of Parthia.
Parthian war
In 216 Caracalla pursued a series of aggressive campaigns in the east against the Parthians, intended to bring more territory under direct Roman control. He offered the king of Parthia, Artabanus V of Parthia, a marriage proposal between himself and the king's daughter.[6][60] Artabanus refused the offer, realizing that the proposal was merely an attempt to unite the kingdom of Parthia under the control of Rome.[60] In response, Caracalla used the opportunity to start a campaign against the Parthians. That summer Caracalla began to attack the countryside east of the Tigris in the Parthian war of Caracalla.[60] In the following winter, Caracalla retired to Edessa, modern Şanlıurfa in south-east Turkey, and began making preparations to renew the campaign by spring.[60] Death[edit] At the beginning of 217, Caracalla was still based at Edessa prior to renewing hostilities against Parthia.[6] On 8 April 217 Caracalla was travelling to visit a temple near Carrhae, now Harran in southern Turkey, where in 53 BC the Romans had suffered a defeat at the hands of the Parthians.[6] After stopping briefly to urinate, Caracalla was approached by a soldier, Justin Martialis, and stabbed to death.[6]
Link for photo
Carausian revolt:
And do you remember i said the British based Roman empire was not all it was cracked up to be?
Well, between the year 217 AD, the same year Caracalla got assassinated, and 289 BC, there was no Roman emperor of Britain until the Carausian revolt.
Britain was back under a nameless leader.
List of legendary kings of Britain
Lucius (d. AD 156)Pope Eleuterus (174–189)Interregnum; war between Severus and SulgeniusSeptimius Severus (Roman emperor 193–211)GetaPublius Septimius Geta (Roman emperor 209–211)Bassianus (Caracalla)Caracalla (Roman emperor 211–217)CarausiusCarausian Revolt (289–296)
Britain got retaken in stages:
Carausian revolt
The Carausian Revolt (ad 286–296) was an episode in Roman history, during which a Roman naval commander, Carausius, declared himself emperor over Britain and northern Gaul. His Gallic territories were retaken by the western Caesar) Constantius Chlorus in 293, after which Carausius was assassinated by his subordinate Allectus. Britain was regained by Constantius and his subordinate Asclepiodotus in 296.
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Carausian coin
Gallic empire:
And dont be thinking the Carausian revolt done Britain any favours.
Britain at the time had been roped in to joining a de facto roman empire in 260 AD, which was probably their first mistake.
The Carausian revolt gave the actual Roman empire the perfect pretext to come to the rescue and save Britain from this rogue emperor, and the Romans got Southern britain back in 296 AD.
Previously, Britain had been part of the Gallic Empire established by Postumus in 260, which had also included Gaul and Hispania and had only been restored by Aurelian in 274. A milestone from Carlisle with his name on it suggests that the whole of Roman Britain was in Carausius' grasp.[7]
submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]

2020.09.26 10:47 callum_nwrk Cornwall, England - Lanyon Quoit, supposedly dates back to the Neolithic period (3500-2500BC). The original use is somewhat disputed; some believing that it was the burial chamber of a large mound.

Cornwall, England - Lanyon Quoit, supposedly dates back to the Neolithic period (3500-2500BC). The original use is somewhat disputed; some believing that it was the burial chamber of a large mound. submitted by callum_nwrk to MegalithPorn [link] [comments]

2020.09.26 05:39 paxo_1234 Powerful vassal needs to be removed

So i’m playing ck3 and i played as william the conqueror in the 1066 start date, won the war and divided england between my sons and council over the duchies but at some point the vassal who owns northumbria gained eveyrthing down to mercia and also cornwall plus munster with his own war and he’s almost as powerful as me and threatening my power, is there anyway i can remove him or limit his power without being hated by my vassals?
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2020.09.26 02:18 mkaykrista And the brick wall comes crumbling down...

Typically I only post questions, but my latest discovery is too exciting not to share with genealogy-appreciating people!
Some of you may have seen my past posts in regards to my fourth great-grandparents, Obadiah Nelson Cunningham and his wife, Frances Barnes Forgee Ellis. Despite my efforts, I'd been unable to determine who Obadiah Nelson's parents were, as early census records only note the heads of house. He was born around 1813 in Orange County, New York and vital records during that timeframe are hit or miss.
A few weeks ago I visited the Orange County Genealogy Society in Goshen, New York. I was hoping to find critical information in books and writings not available online. While I did find Cunningham information that may be helpful down the line, I found nothing about Obadiah Nelson. However, I did meet another researcher who offered to help search for my Cunningham ancestors. When the researcher contacted me, he provided several critical records for the Cunningham generation above, but we still couldn't put parents to Obadiah Nelson.
One of the things the researcher showed me was how to research deed records. In the past, I only ever looked at the deed index - for whatever reason it never occurred to me that there was another set of records where you can read the original deed. So earlier this week, on a whim, I decided to type Obadiah Nelson into FamilySearch and see what I came up with. Of course, I saw records I'd glanced at dozens of times, but now I knew how to read into them more. I picked a record that had Obadiah Nelson's wife's name listed and pulled up the deed. Reading further, I was literally brought to tears when I read (paraphrasing here) that the land being sold belonged to a Julia Cunningham, who died interstate, and the land had been left to her surviving children, Samuel A Cunningham and Obadiah N Cunningham. I'm still in awe that I have an actual document that gives me a mother and brother to Obadiah Nelson!
But, it gets better! I already had a suspicion that Obadiah Nelson's parents were Obadiah Cunningham and Julia Clark, daughter of Jeremiah Clark. The census records, naming conventions, timeframe and other researching fit perfectly. I decided to look into deeds regarding Julia Cunningham, and found one from 1836 of her selling land. The plot of land was in Cornwall, Orange County and the deed specifically states (paraphrasing here) that the land was given to her as a gift in 1799 by her father, Jeremiah Clark! Additionally, the deed lists her sister Deborah and her husband, Francis Mandeville. This names and dates match up with other records and a genealogy book regarding the Clark Family.
Hands down, this has been the best thing I've ever discovered. I'm still in disbelief that I have records that clearly state these family relations, and stunned and a little proud that my suspicions turned out to be correct all along. Of course, I could never have gotten to this point without the online community and the researchers I've met in person. And despite a fruitless travel to the Orange County Genealogy Society, I never would have met the researcher who showed me how to research deeds had I never gone! Who knows how much longer I would have scrolled past those deed records, thinking the only records listed were the indexes.
Now I can happily add to my family tree that Obadiah Nelson's parents are Obadiah Cunningham and Julia Clark, and I've added a new sibling, Samuel A Cunningham and his line to the tree. There's still more loose ends to tie up, but I'm over the Moon at this discovery.
If you got this far, thanks for reading! Happy researching!
submitted by mkaykrista to Genealogy [link] [comments]

2020.09.24 10:38 IamFromScotland Some Information In Regarding To Whom Laura Is...

Who is Laura Tott and how old is she?
Laura is 25 years old and comes from Staines, Surrey.
She worked as a waitress and barmaid for years before doing so in front of the camera.
She was briefly a member of the Royal Navy, with HMS Raleigh in Cornwall, and travelled the world extensively before signing up for First Dates.
Having decided she did not want to go to university she describes herself as a "graduate of the University of Life", previously studying at Strode's College, in Egham, Surrey.
The First Dates star completed her training to become a fully registered paramedic competing her first shift in August 2019 alongside her role on Channel 4's reality show.
Is Laura still a waitress on First Dates?
Yes, Laura is still one of four waiters/waitresses in the First Dates restaurant.
She and fellow waitress CiCi Coleman have a great on-screen chemistry and are often seen messing around, much to maitre d’ Fred Sirieix's annoyance.
First Dates first aired in June 2013 and the staff including Laura do not work full time, just when the series is being filmed.
There was also a celebrity spin-off for stand up to cancer including celebrities like Ulrika Johnson and Jo Wood.
Has Laura Tott got a boyfriend?
Laura is very much loved up with her hunky boyfriend - who she keeps away from the media spotlight.
The stunning waitress has seen herself the object of some unwanted desire in the First Dates restaurant, most memorably by playboy Ben - who flirted with Laura while his date Daisy was in the toilet.
Corona Virus?
Laura works as a full time paramedic, during which time she contracted Corona Virus back in April 2020.
Unfortunately whilst working on the front line in her job as paramedic she has fallen ill with the coronovirus and has been keeping fans up to date on her social media platforms and asking them to swipe on her photos to see a daily list of symptoms.
"List of my symptoms. Different to the classic cough & fever. Wanna spread awareness of the variety of symptoms."
Adding, "The more awareness the more chance we have of beating this (Virus emoji) Not everyone that catches this dies, I know it's worrying but remember how many people have survived this."
Social Media Links:
submitted by IamFromScotland to LauraTott_FirstDates [link] [comments]

2020.09.20 22:47 StevenStevens43 Fergus I, first king of Scots

Fergus I, first king of Scots
Fergus I:
According to Scottish gaelic historian George Buchanan, Fergus I was the first king of Scots in around 330 BC.
Scholars and historians appear to misinterpret this with Buchanan saying fergus was the first king of Scotland.
But king of Scots, is not the same thing as King of Scotland.
Fergus I)
King Fergus I (said to have flourished c. 330 B.C.),[1]#cite_note-1) is generally identified as the son of Ferchard, Prince of Scots in Ireland and is the first of the line of Legendary kings of Scotland.
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George Buchanan
Now, according to Irish legend, this boy would have been Fiacha, the son of Oengus Tuirmech Temrach, who exiled his son from Ireland.
By todays standards, Oengus Tuirmech Temrach would be considered a child molesterer, as legends attribute him to raping his own daughter whilst drunk, and this is how Fiach was born.
Also, the date would be sometime between 262-232 BC, according to Keating's.
It is the dates given by Keatings that i find most accurate with contemporary history, as shown elsewhere in previous articles.
Oengus Tuirmech Temrach
Óengus is said to have fathered Fíacha on his own daughter when drunk, and to have put him in a boat, wrapped in a purple robe with a golden fringe and accompanied by treasure, and set him out to sea – hence the epithet fer mara, "man of the sea". He was found and brought up by fishermen, and became the ancestor of several High Kings of Ireland and the later Dál Riata monarchs of Scotland. The Lebor Gabála Érenn interprets his epithet as meaning "the reckoner of Tara", saying that "by him was 'reckoning' first made in Ireland".[2] Geoffrey Keating gives his epithet as Tuirbeach, "ashamed", because of the incestuous conception of Fíacha.[3]
He reigned for thirty or sixty years, and died at Tara, succeeded by his nephew Conall Collamrach. The Lebor Gabála synchronises his reign with that of Ptolemy VI Philometor in Egypt (180–145 BC). The chronology of Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 262–232 BC,
Dal riata:
However, as you may have noticed above, Irish legend does not attribute Fiacha to having become king of Scotland, but merely the king of the kingdom that would later become Dal Riata, and then eventually Scotland.
He was found and brought up by fishermen, and became the ancestor of several High Kings of Ireland and the later Dál Riata monarchs of Scotland.
Link for photo
Dal Riata
Kingdom of Alba:
However, the fact that the Dal Riata became the kingdom of Scotland, is just to make it easier for the modern Latin speaker to understand.
In actual fact, Dal riata merged with the kingdom of Alba, before a unified Alba and Dal riata would become Scotland.
Dal Riata
Dál Riata or Dál Riada (also Dalriada) (/dælˈriːədə/) was a Gaelic kingdom that encompassed the western seaboard of Scotland and the north-eastern corner of Ireland, on each side of the North Channel). At its height in the 6th and 7th centuries, it covered what is now Argyll ("Coast of the Gaels") in Scotland and part of County Antrim in Northern Ireland.[1] After a period of expansion, Dál Riata eventually became associated with the Gaelic Kingdom of Alba.
Link for photo
The purple robe, gold fringe, and deep blue sea
Alba, is a kingdom which derives from the etymological root word "Albany", which was the name of the Island of britain, prior to the Roman invasion, when Albion/Britain, got pushed to North of Hadrians wall by the Romans.
After this period, Alba pertained only to the land North of Hadrians wall.
The oldest attestation of the toponym comes from the Greek language (Ἀλβίων)[6] and Latinised as Albiōn (genitive Albionis), derives from the Proto-Celtic nasal stem \Albi̯iū* (oblique \Albiion-) and survived in Old Irish as *Albu (genitive Albann). The name originally referred to Britain as a whole, but was later restricted to Caledonia (giving the modern Scottish Gaelic name for Scotland, Alba).
Picts and Albannachs:
Now, apparently the Dal Riata were merging with Scots already in Albany.
Therefore it is a myth that Scots were solely Irish.
The Scots likely arrived an Angus back when Oengus Olmucaid was said to have invaded Scotland back in the year 1000 BC approximately.
Around the same time as all the other Scandinvians likely landed on the shores of Britain and Ireland.
Also, apparently, they were here to help fight the Picts and the Britons.
But as there were no such thing as Britains at this point in history, they were more likely here to help fight Albannachs, from North of the Humber.
As well as Picts.
Fergus I)
The "first king of Scotland", according to the fictitious chronologies of Boece and Buchanan, is said to have come to Scotland from Ireland about 330 B.C. to assist the Scots already settled in Scotland against the joint attack of the Picts and Britons).
Now, we already know who the Albannachs likely are, they are the peoples that have been living in Albany North of the Humber since around 1112 BC, and are likely the exact same peoples that have been living in Loegria, south of the Humber, since 1112 BC.
But who are the Picts?
Well, the Picts are probably a peoples that got pushed farther and farther North by Albannachs, until they ended up living in a kingdom north of the Forth and Clyde.
So pretty much the Scottish highlands.
Therefore, we likely actually had six countries in Albion.
Cornwall, Loegria, Cambria, Nort Humber Land, Albany, and a kingdom that nobody recognised, Pictland.
The Picts were a group of Celtic-speaking peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland during the Late British Iron Age and Early Medieval periods. Where they lived and what their culture was like can be inferred from early medieval texts and Pictish stones. Their Latin name, Picti, appears in written records from Late Antiquity to the 10th century. They lived to the north of the rivers Forth and Clyde.
Link for photo
Old Brythonic:
Now, there was a few differences though, between Picts and Albannachs.
Language for one.
t[2] augmented by fugitive Brythonic) resistance fighters fleeing from Britannia. This is, however, contested by the fact, that according to the book "Life of Saint Columba", the Irish emissary needed an interpreter in order to speak to the Pictish king or convert certain individual in their kingdom. The Caledonian tribe
Common Brythonic:
The fact that one "Brythonic speaker" required an interpretor to speak to another brythonic speaker, probably has to do with the fact that the Picts are likely indigenous to the Island of Albion, and pre-dated any invasions from Gaul or Scandinavia in 1112 BC, and they likely spoke a Brythonic language which was older, than any Brythonic language the Irish were using at this point in time in history.
In fact, they were probably speaking a language which pre-dated the word "Brythonic", and dated back to the days when Britain was called Albion, and is unlikely Albannachs would have named thir language Brythonic.
Common brythonic
Common Brittonic (Old English: Brytisċ; Welsh: Brythoneg; Cornish: Brythonek; Breton: Predeneg) was a Celtic language spoken in Britain and Brittany. It is also variously known as Old Brittonic, British, and Common or Old Brythonic.
It is a form of Insular Celtic, descended from Proto-Celtic (P-Celtic), a theorized parent tongue that, by the first half of the first millennium BC, was diverging) into separate dialects or languages.[2][3][4][5] Pictish is linked and likely as a sister language or a fifth branch.[6]
Tattooed people:
Also, the picts did not refer to themselves as Picts.
This was the Roman word to describe them, and the word meant "Tattooed people".
Link for photo
The Picts themselves would have likely just referred to themselves based upon whatever area or region they are from.
Pictland had previously been described by Roman writers and geographers as the home of the Caledonii.[15] These Romans also used other names to refer to tribes living in that area, including Verturiones, Taexali and Venicones.[16] But they may have heard these other names only second- or third-hand, from speakers of Brittonic or Gaulish languages, who may have used different names for the same group or groups.[17]
Link for photo
Now, Bede, the English historian, writes that Picts originated from foreign lands such as Scythia.
However this is contested by Scholars and Historians.
The Pictish Chronicle, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the early historiographers such as Bede, Geoffrey of Monmouth, Holinshed, etc. all present the Picts as conquerors of Alba from Scythia. However, no credence is now given to that view.[14]
Link for photo
Now, the fact that modern day English professors and scholars have difficulty believing that Picts could have frequented other countries aswell, likely goes back to the first ever Roman emperor, Octavius.
You see, Octavius changed his name to Augustus to "hide" his plebe genes.
Upon his adoption, Octavius assumed his great-uncle's name Gaius Julius Caesar. Roman citizens adopted into a new family usually retained their old nomen in cognomen form (e.g., Octavianus for one who had been an Octavius, Aemilianus for one who had been an Aemilius, etc.). However, though some of his contemporaries did,[34] there is no evidence that Octavius ever himself officially used the name Octavianus, as it would have made his modest origins too obvious.[35]
Link for photo
Alban Hills:
You see, the history that modern day English professors and scholars are using, is quite simply the same rhetoric that was being spread by the Romans to cover up Augustus Genes, which they felt was an embarrasment to them.
The Octavii originally came from the Volscian town of Velitrae, in the Alban Hills. The historian Suetonius writes,
Alba longa:
Now the peoples in the Alban hills, were the peoples from Alba longa, and they were the barbaric plebes that the Romans had conquered, so their first emperor having Genes that came from Alba longa, was pretty embarrassing.
Alba longa
Alba Longa (occasionally written Albalonga in Italian sources) was an ancient Latin) city in Central Italy, 12 miles (19 km) southeast of Rome, in the Alban Hills. Founder and head of the Latin League, it was destroyed by the Roman Kingdom around the middle of the 7th century BC, and its inhabitants were forced to settle in Rome.
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Lake Albano
Tam o Shanter:
Now, the main thing that made him stand out as a plebe from Alba longa, was the fact that he had red hair.
Branches and cognomena
During the Republic, none of the Octavii of this family bore any cognomen other than Rufus, and even this is rarely mentioned. The surname, which means "red," may have been obtained by one of the Octavii because he had red hair.[7][
Link for photo
The Tam o Shanter
Red haired people:
Now, whilst many people might like to think that red hair is just something that can pop up anywhere, in actual fact, this is not quite the case.
You see, if someone has red hair, it is because they very likely have some pictish genes, as the Picts were red heads.
In AD 83 or 84, led by Calgacus, the Caledonians' defeat at the hands of Gnaeus Julius Agricola at Mons Graupius is recorded by Tacitus. Tacitus avoids using terms such as king to describe Calgacus and it is uncertain as to whether the Caledonians had single leaders or whether they were more disparate and that Calgacus was an elected war leader only. Tacitus records the physical characteristics of the Caledonians as red hair and long limbs.
Link for photo
Red haired people chasing Greeks in Greece, 340 BC
So whilst it may be correct that Picts were here before any invasions from Scythia, Bede would also be correct that there were Picts elsewhere, that almost definitely took refuge on Albion shores, amongst their fellow picts.
Also, how reliable is British history from Greeks or Italians?
Here is a map of Britain according to Ptolemy.
Link for photo
Ptolemy map of Britain
Though whilst Octavius had red hair, he also had black skin.
Augustus was born Gaius Octavius into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia. His maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC,
Link for photo
Thutmose IV:
This might suggest the adopted son of Julius Caesar was from the Thutmose IV lineage, as the pharoah Thutmose IV also had reddish hair, despite being Sudanese.
Buriel and mummy
The forearms are crossed over the chest, right over left. His hair, which is parted in the middle, is about 16 cm (6.3 in) long and dark reddish-brown. His ears are also pierced. Elliot Smith estimated his age to be 25–28 years or possibly older.[23]
Link for photo
Thutmose IV
submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]

2020.09.16 22:25 LordDakier Ck3: - 867: Repelling Vikings In Britain

So with any sort of balancing patch still not arriving in the immediate future, I'm looking for advice on how to deal with the Vikings in Britain. I'm playing Cornwall so I don't exactly have much in the way of defence to begin with. Every time I've attempted to play this start date I've never managed to overcome the viking menace.
Does anyone have any early tips or exploits that they've used to repel the onslaught and give the player time build-up?
submitted by LordDakier to CrusaderKings [link] [comments]

2020.09.16 19:51 StevenStevens43 From the temple of Apollo to The "green isle of Islay".

From the temple of Apollo to The
In this article, i am going to attempt to correct, what i think is a scholarly error.
It begins with the son of Belinas, who was the focus of attention in my last article, "Brennos & Sack of Rome".
Gurguit Barbtruc:
Garguit Barbtruc is the legendary son of Belinas.
Garguit Barbtruc
Gurguit Barbtruc (Welsh: Gwrgant Farfdrwch) was a legendary king of the Britons) as accounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth. He was the son of Belinus and was said to have found a home for the Irish people.
His father sadly passed away whilst fighting in Greece.
He committed suicide after receiving horrific injuries.
He might actually have been thrown off a tower in flames.
Later years
When Belinus finally died, he was cremated and placed on top of a great tower he had created. He was succeeded by his son Gurguit Barbtruc.
Link for photo#/media/File:Naxos_Sphinx_with_humans_for_size.jpg)
Temple of Apollo
Many poems attribute the enchanting music made by priests at the temple of Apollo.
Apparently the festivities would whip up a frantic delirium with loud screams and cries and the priests would turn the cries in to music.
Sounds like the temple of Apollo was used for capital punishment.
I wonder if this is how Belinas suffered his horrific injuries?
Temple of Apollo)
The Temple of Apollo, god of music, harmony and light, occupied the most important and prominent position in the Delphic Panhellenic Sanctuary. The edifice with the partially restored colonnade visible today dates to the 4th century BCE; it is the third temple built at the same place. The famous oracle, the Pythia, operated inside the temple, the location chosen, according to tradition, due to a sacred chasm beneath the site emitting vapors, which were inhaled by the Pythias, who then entered a state of delirium and uttering inarticulate cries, which were then turned into equivocal oracles by the priests.[1]#cite_note-:0-1)
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Bladud jumping from Temple of Apollo
It is likely that King Bladud of Loegria was the first ever person to receive this honour.
Divination, wing and death
The tale claims that he also encouraged the practice of necromancy, or divination through the spirits of the dead. Through this practice, he is said to have constructed wings for himself and to have tried to fly to (or from) the temple of Apollo in Trinovantum (London)
Link for photo
Isle of Ireland:
Now, enough of Garguit Barbtruc's fathers possible death.
An absolutely sensational claim is made, regards to Garguit Barbtruc.
According to translations of Irish legends, Garguit Barbtruc gave the Basclenses, under the leadership of Partholoim, the Isle of Ireland.
Gaurguit Barbtruc
On the return voyage, Gurguit came across a fleet of thirty ships of men and women, called Basclenses, under the leadership of Partholoim. They had been exiled from Spain and sought a new land to live in. Gurguit did not allow them to settle in Britain but he gave them the isle of Ireland to settle,
357-345 BC Further conflict in region:

Now, i will begin by stating, that it is not in the slightest bit unbelievable that Garguit Barbtruc, on his way back from Denmark, may have encountered a fleet of Gauls fleeing Iberia during this period.

Between 357 and 345 BC there was a huge war going on in those regions, and after initial success in sacking Rome, the Romans were beginning to win again, in this region, and the Gauls were being pushed out.
By 347 BC, they had been pushed out.
357-345 BC
There was single combat between a Gaul and a Roman, which the latter won. That was followed by a battle, which the Romans won. The Gauls scattered among the Volsci, and some of them went to Etruria and others to Apulia. The consuls then joined the other legions to deal with the Greek fleet. There was no battle, and the Greeks were kept offshore. Eventually, the Greeks ran out of the water and left.[51]
In 348 and 347, there was peace.
Celtiberian wars:
The depopulation of Celtiberians from the Iberian peninsula went on right through from the first Greco invasion in 600 BC, until the Celtiberian wars.
Early history of Iberian peninsula
The Greeks are responsible for the name Iberia, apparently after the river Iber (Ebro). In the 6th century BC, the Carthaginians arrived in Iberia, struggling first with the Greeks, and shortly after, with the newly arriving Romans for control of the Western Mediterranean. Their most important colony was Carthago Nova (Latin name of modern-day Cartagena).[7]
The peoples whom the Romans met at the time of their invasion in what is now known as Spain were the Iberians, inhabiting an area stretching from the northeast part of the Iberian Peninsula through the southeast. The Celts mostly inhabited the inner and north-west part of the peninsula. In the inner part of the peninsula, where both groups were in contact, a mixed culture arose, the Celtiberians. The Celtiberian Wars
Link for photo
Celtiberian suicide
Isle of Islay:
Now, it is unlikely that legends are referring to Ireland.
More likely the Isle of Isley, which is an Island on the North Irish coast, which evolved in to a gaelic speaking Irish Dal Riata stronghold
Islay (/ˈaɪlə/ (📷listen) EYE-lə; Scottish Gaelic: Ìle) is the southernmost island of the Inner Hebrides of Scotland. Known as "The Queen of the Hebrides",[7] it lies in Argyll just south west of Jura and around 40 kilometres (25 mi) north of the Northern Irish coast. The island's capital is Bowmore where the distinctive round Kilarrow Parish Church and a distillery are located.[8] Port Ellen is the main port.[9]
Islay is the fifth-largest Scottish island and the eighth-largest island of the British Isles, with a total area of almost 620 square kilometres (240 sq mi).[Note 1] There is ample evidence of the prehistoric settlement of Islay and the first written reference may have come in the 1st century AD. The island had become part of the Gaelic Kingdom of Dál Riata during the Early Middle Ages
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Isle of Islay
And Portnahaven,
on Isle of Islay, likely derives it's name, from where the legendary Partholoim landed.
On the return voyage, Gurguit came across a fleet of thirty ships of men and women, called Basclenses, under the leadership of Partholoim
Link for photo
Now, when Garguit Barbtruc died, he was succeeded to the Albion throne by Guithelin.
Gurguit Barbtruc
Gurguit died peacefully and was buried in the Caerleon, a city he built up from the time his father founded it. Guithelin succeeded him to the kingship.
Port Ellen:
Port Ellen is the main port for Isle of Islay, a word almost definitely derived from Elin.
Port Ellen is the main port.[9]
Now, what about the claim that Garguit was buried in Caerleon?
What proof is there that Belinas left Garguit the Fortress of Caerleon? After-all, Caerloeon is in Wales/Cambria! Not Albany.
Caerleon (/kərˈliːən/; Welsh: Caerllion) is a suburban town and community) on the River Usk[4][5] in the northern outskirts of the city of Newport, Wales. Caerleon is of archaeological importance, being the site of a notable Roman legionary fortress, Isca Augusta, and an Iron Age hillfort.
Link for photo
Well, you see, when Cornwall conquered Loegria (England),, Albany (Scotland) allied themselves with Cambria/Wales, and also this new kingdom (Northumberland), whilst fighting this invasion.
But Dyfnwal killed both the king of Cambria and Albany.
It would appear, after the deaths of the two kings, Staterius of Albany's son, Belinus, inherited both the Cambrain kingdom, and kingdom of Albany.
Also the kingdom of Northerberland would be dissolved with the death of Brunnias, and would fall back in to the hands of Albany.
Dyfnwal was the King of Cornwall during the war created in the power vacuum left by Porrex I. He was braver and more courageous than all the other kings in the war. He defeated Pinner, the king of Loegria. In response, Rudaucus, king of Cambria, and Staterius, king of Albany, allied together and destroyed much of Dyfnwal's land. The two sides met in battle and were stalemated. Dyfnwal then took 600 of his men and himself and dressed themselves in the armour of the dead enemies. They led a charge deep into enemy lines where they killed the two kings.
Now, it appears that no King was put on the empty Loegria throne.
Instead it appears, that instead of a King, government was placed in the City of trinovantium (London).
Likely with the kings of Cornwall and Albany acting as house of Lords.
Guithelin was a legendary king of the Britons) as accounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth. He became king after the death of Gurguit Barbtruc.
He ruled liberally and temperately for his life. His Queen consort was an artisan and noblewoman named Marcia. When he died, his wife took over the government as regent for their son, Sisillius II.
Link for photo
The Green Isle of Isley:
and Eilean uaine Ìle – the "green isle of Islay"[18]
I have made a few minor edits to this article, to include some additional information i found with farther research, and also to make a few minor corrections.
I have not been able to provide a source for every little change i made, but i will however be covering all this in the next article.

submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]

2020.09.16 16:22 StevenStevens43 Brennius, Belinas & The sack of Rome

Brennius, Belinas & The sack of Rome
Pre-roman Invasion of Loegria:
This is a continuation of a previous article i wrote, where i claimed that there were reasons to suggest that Loegria, the land south of the Humber river and Lake district, became conquered. "Or at least influenced". Most likely by Greco-Romans.
One should perhaps read that article first, before reading this one, as they both inter-connect.
Pre-roman invasion of Loegria
Now, in legends, there is indeed a war going on.
In fact, there has been a war going on between Loegria, and Cornwall, ever since "Brutus" arrived on the island in 1112 BC and subjugated the Cornish and pushed them in to the most South Western part of Albion.
However the Cornish fought back.
Likely allying themselves with others, and they were successful in fully reconquering Loegria, from Brennius.
Dyfnwal Moelmud
Dyfnwal was the King of Cornwall during the war created in the power vacuum left by Porrex I. He was braver and more courageous than all the other kings in the war. He defeated Pinner, the king of Loegria. In response, Rudaucus, king of Cambria, and Staterius, king of Albany, allied together and destroyed much of Dyfnwal's land. The two sides met in battle and were stalemated. Dyfnwal then took 600 of his men and himself and dressed themselves in the armour of the dead enemies. They led a charge deep into enemy lines where they killed the two kings. After this battle, Dyfnwal destroyed the remaining defences of the kings and pillaged their lands.
Following the defeat of the rival kings, Dyfnwal created a crown like that of his predecessors and claimed the throne of Britain. He created a set of rules for the kingdom called the Molmutine Laws, which nearly ended robbery within his kingdom and lasted for many centuries. He reigned in peace and prosperity for forty years then died and was buried in the Temple of Concord, a tribute to his laws, which resided in Trinovantum. His death sparked another civil war between his two sons, Belinus and Brennius.
Temple of Concord:
Now to commemorate his great achievement in conquering the land South of the Humber, he was buried in the Temple of Concord in the Loegrian capital of Trinovantium (London).
He reigned in peace and prosperity for forty years then died and was buried in the Temple of Concord, a tribute to his laws, which resided in Trinovantum.
Link for photo
Temple of Concord
Roman Goddess:
Concordia, is of course, a Roman goddess.
She is likely the Goddess that threw Bladud from the building.
Temple of Concord
The Temple of Concord (Latin: Aedes Concordiae) in the ancient city of Rome refers to a series of shrines or temples dedicated to the Roman goddess Concordia),
Link for photo
Death of Bladud
North of the Humber:
By 390 BC, Kings of the Island of Albion have been pushed North, sparking a civil war between two Brothers, as Brennius now has to attempt to invade and conquer his brothers land of Albany, in order to remain a king, and the end result of this war is that Brennius (after much fighting, twists and turns) ends up with the land North of the Humber, (Northumberland), and Belinus ends up with a smaller portion of Albany, than what he had before, and Albany becomes the land approximately North of Northumberland.
Claiment to the throne of Britain (Albion)
In an effort to win the crown of Britain, Brennius and Balinus waged war between each other to determine who should succeed their father. Many battles were fought between the two brothers until a time came when their friends intervened and a compromise was decided upon. Belinus became the King of the Britons with Brennius as King of Northumberland.
Link for photo
Nordic Humber land/North Humber land
Conquerors of Rome:
Now, according to legends, a unified Albany and Northumberland led by Belinus and Brennius, went to war with the Gauls and Franks, and began marching through their lands.
Though, i do not think those are the same Gauls and Franks from before 600 BC.
Belinus and Brennius are also (Gauls and Franks).
The Gauls and Franks being referred to here, are in fact more likely Messenaean Romans (Greco/Romans) that have invaded Gaul, and perhaps even Loegria, as far North as the River Humber.
Conqueror of Rome
Following their unification, Belinus and Brennius merged their armies into one great one and invaded Gaul. After a year of warfare, the joint army managed to subject all the Frankish kingdoms in Gaul to their authority. Now with an even greater army, Belinus lead his great army to Italy and threatened to invade Rome. Outside Rome, the two consuls, Gabias and Porsenna, sued for peace and offered wealth, tribute, and hostages as a sign of their submission.
Battle of the Allia:
Now, the battle is indeed attested to by well reputed contemporary Roman and Greek historians and Scholars.
The battle of Allia
The Battle of the Allia was a battle fought c. 390 BC between the Senones (a Gallic tribe who had invaded northern Italy) and the Roman Republic. The battle was fought at the confluence of the Tiber and Allia rivers, 11 Roman miles (16 km, 10 mi) north of Rome. The Romans were routed and Rome was subsequently sacked by the Senones.
The date of the battle is commonly given as 390 BC (in the Varronian chronology), based on an account of the battle by the Roman historian Livy. The Greek historian Polybius used a Greek dating system and derived the date as 387 or 386 BC.
Link for photo
Now, it seems that contemporary history does indeed verify that a Gaulish tribe led by Brennus, sacked Rome.
Rome was indeed captured by Brennus), a Gaulish chieftain, following the Battle of the Allia on 18 July 390 BC.
There was however "nobody" called "Brennus".
"The Brennos" was the "collective name" for both the brothers.
Brennus or Brennos (Gaulish: Brano "raven") is the name of two Gaulish chieftains, famous in ancient history:
Brennus), chieftain of the Senones, a Gallic tribe originating from the modern areas of France known as Seine-et-Marne, Loiret, and Yonne; in 387 BC, in the Battle of the Allia, he led an army of Cisalpine Gauls in their attack on Rome.
Link for photo
Gallic Helmet
Germanic mercenaries:
There was however "a huge" twist in this tale.
The Brennos had pretty much conquered Rome without much of a fight, having already defeated them in Gaul.
The Greco-Romans simply surrendered and negotiated a treaty, which the Brennos accepted.
However, the Brennos got as far as Germany, presumed allied territory, when they were met with a surprise.
The Romans broke the treaty, and had actually allied themselves with Germanic mercenaries, and a group of Germanic, a mix of ex Gauls (Germanics) and Italian troops, attacked Brennos army, so the Brennos had to defeat this army, and immediately do a u-turn, and reconquer Rome.
They did this, but this time, the invasion was not met with a treaty.
They sacked Rome.
Conqueror of Rome
Belinus and Brennius accepted and took their great army to Germany. Soon after this movement north, Rome broke the treaty and marched north, and Brennius went to fight the Romans while Belinus remained at war with the Germans (who were being helped by various other Italian troops).
Brennius traveled south and besieged Rome for three days until his brother came to his aid in the invasion. The Romans defended the city for many days and were successful in repelling the invaders. Finally, the two consuls put on armour and joined the men defending the city. They pushed the invaders back but Belinus was able to reform the lines and stop the attacks. Brennius and Belinus continued forward until the walls were breached and the Britons and Gauls invaded the city.
Now, it is revealed in Norse legends, who the mercenaries were.
The mercenaries were....... "The Saxons".
After him DAN came to the throne. When he was in the twelfth year of his age, he was wearied by the insolence of the embassies, which commanded him either to fight the Saxons or to pay them tribute. Ashamed, he preferred fighting to payment and was moved to die stoutly rather than live a coward. So he elected to fight; and the warriors of the Danes filled the Elbe with such a throng of vessels, that the decks of the ships lashed together made it quite easy to cross, as though along a continuous bridge. The end was that the King of Saxony had to accept the very terms he was demanding from the Danes.
Dan III:
You see, Brennius and Belinas are from the same family as the Danish noble houses, and before the Gallic uprising, the Danes and Norwegians had been involved in the domestic dispute that pre-dated the unification.
It was just a domestic family dispute.
Claiment to throne of Britain
Five years later, Brennius wed the daughter of the King of Norway without consulting Belinus. Belinus invaded Northumberland and seized Brennius's land. Brennius heard of this violation and gathered a large Norwegian army together to sail for Britain. On the way, a fleet of ships under the King of Denmark attacked because the king wanted Brennius's wife for himself. They fought in the open ocean and the two sides dispersed. The King of Denmark managed to capture the wife of Brennius but he then got lost and landed on Britain. Belinus captured the king and his brother's wife. Brennius landed in Albany and demanded the return of all his lands and his wife. If not, he swore he would kill Belinus if they ever met in battle.
Offa of Angel:
Now, all this between the Saxons, and Scandinavians apparently began when one of Dan III's ancestors had expelled the Saxons to the otherside of the Schleswig border, which seperates the land of Germany and Denmark, and he brought Denmark under Scandinavian control.
But the dispute between the Brennos and the scandinavians was resolved with the unification.
And the Saxons, that have obviously always felt vengeful about what happened under Offa of angel, see the Romans as their ticket.
Offa of angel
According to Widsith and the Danish sources, Offa successfully conquered the Myrgings, possibly a clan of Saxon origin, and incorporated their land into Angel or Danish lands, by slaying two Myrging princes in single combat and installing himself as their king.
Link for photo
Apollonic invasion:
Now it was not only Rome that the Brennos invaded.
This was in fact a war against Messenaeans.
One of the brothers also attempted to invade Athens.
Link for photo
Another Brennus) was one of the leaders of the army of Gauls who attempted to invade and settle in the Greek mainland in 278 BC. After a looting spree and after managing to pass Thermopylae by encircling the Greek army and forcing it to retreat he made his way to the rich treasury at Delphi but he was defeated by the re-assembled Greek army. Brennus was heavily injured at the battle of Delphi and committed suicide there.
Link for photo
This invasion must have been led by Belinas, as his brother is reported to have lived out the remainder of his days in Rome.
Conqueror of Rome
Brennius stayed in Rome and ruled ruthlessly for the rest of his days.
Delian league:
It would have been an invasion intended to push back the newly formed and expanding Delian league, in order to re-establish the long lost Latin league.
Delian league
The Delian League, founded in 478 BC,[1] was an association of Greek city-states, with the number of members numbering between 150 and 330[2][3][4] under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire after the Greek victory in the Battle of Plataea at the end of the Second Persian invasion of Greece. The League's modern[5] name derives from its official meeting place, the island of Delos, where congresses were held in the temple and where the treasury stood until, in a symbolic gesture,[6] Pericles moved it to Athens in 454 BC.[7]
Link for photo
Delian league expansion
Roman & Delian expansion:
Unfortunately/fortunately the sack of Rome would only serve to knock the Messenaeans back.
The Romans would quite quickly recapture Rome, and re-assert their attempts at expansion.
Modern evaluation of conflicts
vote and by a strengthening of the alliance with Caere, which had helped Rome during the Gallic sack. After the initial setback and attacks, Rome resumed its expansionism of the late 5th and early 4th centuries.[54]
Death of Belinus:
And Belinus would commit suicide in Greece, after becoming badly injured in a battle.
Brennus was heavily injured at the battle of Delphi and committed suicide there.
Fear of Barbarians:
The attacks did however lead to a long lasting fear of Gauls, in Rome.
To the point, they would even sacrifice themselves to Gods, even though they do not believe in sacrifice.
Fear of Gauls
The Gallic sack led to a long-lasting and profound fear of the Gauls in Rome. In 350 and 349 BC, unspecified Gauls attacked Latium. They were probably marauding raids. On the second occasion, Marcus Valerius Corvus was said to have fought a duel with a Gallic champion.[55] Polybius said that Rome made a peace with the Gauls, who did not return for 30 years.[56] Despite Rome defeating the Senones in the Battle of Sentinum (295) during the Third Samnite War (298-290), popular fear of the Gauls persisted. In 228, 216, and 114 fears of Gallic attacks led to the Romans performing human sacrifices by burying alive a pair of Gauls and a pair of Greeks even though human sacrifice was not a Roman custom. Presumably, that was to avert the danger of Gallic disaster.[57]

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2020.09.15 23:01 StevenStevens43 From Rud Hud Hudibras to Meryptah

From Rud Hud Hudibras to Meryptah
Rud Hud Hudibras:
Rud Hud Hudibras was king of Loegria.
The first sensational claim about Rud Hud Hudibras, is that he founded kaerreint (Catnerbury).
Rud Hud Hudibras
Rud Hud Hudibras (Welsh: Run baladr bras) was a legendary king of the Britons) as recounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth. He was the son of King Leil and ruled during a civil war.
During the waning years of Leil's reign, the kingdom of the Britons became unstable, and civil war broke out. Rud Hud Hudibras became king after his father's death and reigned for 39 years, ending the civil war and restoring peace to the kingdom. During his reign, he founded Kaerreint, later renamed Canterbury by the Angles.
Link for photo
Canterbury Arms
Durovernum Cantiacorum:
Now whilst there is nothing to support the claim that there was a settlement founded here by Rud Hud Hudibras, there is also nothing to contradict the claim.
There is believed to have been a tribe known as the Cantiaci which settled in this area in a pre-roman settlement known as Durovernum Cantiacorum.
The Cantiaci or Cantii were an Iron Age Celtic people living in Britain before the Roman conquest, and gave their name to a civitas of Roman Britain. They lived in the area now called Kent, in south-eastern England. Their capital was Durovernum Cantiacorum, now Canterbury
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And i am sure it goes without saying, that evidence of inhabitation in this area, dates all the way back to the Pale-olithic era.
Early history
The Canterbury area has been inhabited since prehistoric times. Lower Paleolithic axes, and Neolithic and Bronze Age pots have been found in the area.[11]
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Canterbury City walls
The earliest known attestation for Cantium, comes from Julius Caeser in 55 BC, whom actually spoke quite fondly of the Cantiums.
Julius Caesar landed in Cantium in 55 and 54 BC, the first Roman expeditions to Britain. He recounts in his De Bello Gallico v. 14:[citation needed]
"Ex his omnibus longe sunt humanissimi qui Cantium incolunt, quae regio est maritima omnis, neque multum a Gallica differunt consuetudine.""Of all these (British tribes), by far the most civilised are they who dwell in Kent, which is entirely a maritime region, and who differ but little from the Gauls in their customs."
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Apparently, he also founded Kaerguenit (Winchester).
Rud Hud Hudibras
He is also said to have founded Kaerguenit (Winchester)
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Winchester coat of Arms
Now, Winchester, also has evidence of inhabitation dating back to pre-historic times.
But Winchester also has an oppidum, which is an Iron age settlement.
The area around Winchester has been inhabited since prehistoric times, with three Iron Age hillforts, Oram's Arbour, St. Catherine's Hill, and Worthy Down all nearby. In the Late Iron Age, a more urban settlement type developed, known as an oppidum
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British Late Iron-age:
The late British Iron age began in approximately 100 BC.
Therefore it would appear archaeologists do not believe the Oppidum to be any older than 100 BC.
Hill forts.
However, three Iron-age hill forts were also mentioned.
And according to the periodisation link above, the British Iron-age dates back to beginnings in 800 BC.
Now no date is actually given for what appears to be the oldest of the Iron age hill-forts, St Catherines Hill.
So could be anywhere between 100 BC, and 800 BC.
St Catherines Hill
St. Catherine's Hill is a 43-hectare (110-acre) biological Site of Special Scientific Interest on the outskirts of Winchester in Hampshire.[1][2] It is managed by Hampshire and Isle of Wight Wildlife Trust,[3] and most of it is an Iron Age hillfort, which is a Scheduled Monument.[4]
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St Catherines hill
Paladur Castle:
So, you can decide for yourself whether or not we found evidence to support the claim.
Certainly did not find anything that contradicts the claim.
But that is not all.
Apparently Rud Hud Hudibras also founded Paladur Castle, in what would today be Shaftesbury.
Rud Hud Hudibras
and Paladur Castle (Shaftesbury).
Link for photo
Shaston 12
Caer Palladour:
Whilst some historians dismiss this legend as "mere invention", it does not take away the fact, that even today, "Caer Palladour", is an alternative name for Shaftesbury.
The original Celtic name is first recorded in Medieval Welsh literature as Caer Vynnydd y Paladr (The Mountain Fort/City of the Spears)[2] and Thomas Gale records the name as Caer Palladour in his work of 1709.[3] Though "Palladour" was described by one 19th-century directory as "mere invention", it has continued to be used as a poetic and alternative name for the town.[4]
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Melbury hill
Anyway, legend places Rud Hud Hudibras reign around the same period Capys was king in Alba Longa.
Rud Hud Hudibras
Geoffrey places Rud Hud Hudibras' reign during the time Capys was king in Alba Longa and Haggai, Amos), Joel), and Azariah) were prophesying in Israel.
Given his name, i am surprised they are not placing his reign alongside Robin hood.
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Robin laughing
Now, Capys is said to have reigned from 963 to 935 BC.
Capys, mythological king of Alba Longa and descendant of Aeneas. Said to have reigned from 963 to 935 BC.[3]
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,[4] in the Etruscan language the word capys meant \"hawk\" or \"falcon\" (or possibly \"eagle\" or \"vulture\").
Fiachu Finscothach:
Now, i would just like to look at other events happened around this given period.
Fiachu Finscothach whom reigned as high king of Ireland 975–955 BC, was sent in to exile, but returned as head of a "black fleet".
Fiachu Finscothach
Fíacha Fínscothach, son of Sétna Airt, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. His father became High King after killing the previous incumbent, Rothechtaid mac Main, in single combat at Cruachan in defence of Fíachu. Fíachu went into exile, but returned at the head of a "black fleet", and, with the assistance of Muinemón,
Flag of Cornwall:
Now i just wonder if the words "Black fleet" give a clue as to where he went in to exile? And i wonder if it was in the lands of Queen Gwendolans descendants in Cornwall, desperate to ally themselves with others, for their fight against Loegria.
Link for photo
Flag of Cornwall
Prophets of Israel:
Now, surprisingly, i am not going to bother verifying the prophets of Israel.
Quite simply, during the Egyptian 18th dynasty, which pre-dates the prophets of Israel by some considerable margin, there was a High priest of Ptah, named Ptahmose.
Thutmose was an ancient Egyptian vizier) under Amenhotep III, during the 18th Dynasty.
As vizier of the North (i.e. of Lower Egypt), Thutmose officiated from Memphis, while his southern counterpart was based in Thebes. He was married to Tawy, and had at least two sons: Ptahmose, who became High Priest of Ptah
Ptahmose reigned under two pharoahs, Thutmose IV, and Amenhotep III.
Ptahmose was High Priest of Ptah in Memphis during the time of Thutmose IV and in the beginning of the reign of Amenhotep III.
14th Century BC:
Just to get a rough idea of what period we are discussing, Thutmose IV reigned from approximately 1401 – 1391 BC .
Thutmose IV
Thutmose IV (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis IV, Thothmes in older history works in Latinized Greek; Ancient Egyptian: ḏḥwtj.msj(.w) "Thoth is born")[1] was the 8th Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt, who ruled in approximately the 14th century BC.
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Thutmose IV
High priest of Ptah:
Now, the job description of a high priest of Ptah, pretty much translates to "chief architect".
High priest of Ptah
The High Priest of Ptah was sometimes referred to as "The Greatest of the Directors of Craftsmanship" (wr-ḫrp-ḥmwt). This title refers to Ptah as the patron god of the craftsmen.[1]
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Temple of Ptah
Now, Thutmose also had another son, named Meryptah, whom also became a vizier.
Meryptah likely became the first ever vizier, to be awarded with the title "prophet", in his job description, amongst his other titles, such as chief steward of the mortuary temple of Amenhotep III, which i imagine translates to, "architect of the construction of Amenhotep III's resting place.
He was married to Tawy, and had at least two sons: Ptahmose, who became High Priest of Ptah in Memphis, and Meryptah, who later assumed many titles such as prophet and chief steward of the Mortuary Temple of Amenhotep III.[1]#cite_note-1)
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Temple of Amenhotep III
For reasons connected with above, i have no motivation to go to 800 or 900 BC in order to verify the existence of Prophets.
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2020.09.15 18:42 StevenStevens43 From Mempricius to Saul

From Mempricius to Saul
Mempricius was King of Cornwall and Loegrie, after his Mother queen Gwendolen from Cornwall, conquered Loegria by killing her husband Locrinas, and king of Loegria, in battle, at the river Stour.
This has already been established in my previous article, "From Gwendolen to".
Mempricius (Welsh: Membyr) was a legendary king of the Britons), as recounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth. He was the son of King Maddan and brother of Malin.
Now apparently Mempricius met his death by being mauled by a pack of Wolves.
While on a hunting expedition, he was separated from his companions and attacked by a pack of wolves. He died and was succeeded by his son Ebraucus as monarch.
Link for photo

It is also not unbelievable that he could have been mauled by Wolves, as the Wolf was not made extinct in Britain until 1684 AD, and 1770 AD, in Ireland.
Wolves have been persecuted in Europe for centuries, having been exterminated in Great Britain by 1684, in Ireland by 1770
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Wolf distribution
Now, according to legend, Mempricius reigned during the same period that Saul was the king of Judaea. And Eurysthenes was the king of Sparta.
According to Geoffrey of Monmouth, he reigned at the same period of time as Saul, the King in Judea, and Eurysthenes, King in Sparta.
Link for photo

Dorian Spartans:
Now, the legends of Sparta, are actually extremely consistant with contemporary historical understandings, that i have revealed on other articles, available to read in the lobby, complete with sources, with that understanding being, that what we officially call, the foundations of Sparta, was in fact not the foundations at-all, and was actually the conquest resulting from the Dorian invasion, and the "official founders of Sparta", were in fact considered as foreigners, by indigenous Spartans, that originally denied the foreigners the right to rule Sparta.
However to attempt to resolve the war, they agreed to a co-regency, were there would be two lines.
There would be an indigenous line of Spartans.
And there would be a foreign line of Spartans.
Of course, what does this do?
Well, it makes it possible to have historical records that actually depict a war between Spartans, and Spartans.
And whenever there is a war involving Spartans, it is hard to actually fathem whether this is the Greek Spartans, or the Northern invading Spartans (Dorians).
Anyway! At the right hand side of the page given in the link below, you should find out that Eurysthenes reign is attested to as being 1104 – 1066 BC, so that should roughly correspond to the period of Mempricius, and Saul.
The title of archēgetēs, "founding magistrate," was explicitly denied to Eurysthenes and Procles by the later Spartan government on the grounds that they were not founders of a state, but were maintained in their offices by parties of foreigners. Instead the honor was granted to their son and grandson, for which reason the two lines were called the Agiads and the Eurypontids.[3]
Link for photo

Now, i need to find out a little bit about Saul.
Saul was apparently the first king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
Though Celtic legends only attest to him being the founder of Judaea.
Biblical scholars also give his reign as being possibly 1037-1010 BCE.
However Celtic legends give an approximate more like 1104 – 1066 BC.
You will need to read my other articles, to decide whether or not you think Celtic legends have ever let me down yet.
Saul (/sɔːl/; Hebrew: שָׁאוּל‎ – Šāʾūl, Greek: Σαούλ, meaning "asked for, prayed for"), according to the Hebrew Bible, was the first king of the United Kingdom of Israel (Israel and Judah)). His reign, traditionally placed in the late 11th century BCE,[1] supposedly marked a transition from a tribal society to statehood).[2]
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Now, there was an Egyptian pharoah named Smendes that rose to power in Egypt during this precise period.
Hedjkheperre Setepenre Smendes was the founder of the Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt and succeeded to the throne after burying Ramesses XI in Lower Egypt – territory which he controlled. His Egyptian nomen) or birth name was actually Nesbanebdjed[5] meaning "He of the Ram, Lord of Mendes",[6] but it was translated into Greek as Smendes by later classical writers such as Josephus and Sextus Africanus. According to the Story of Wenamun from c. 1000 BC, Smendes was a governor of Lower Egypt during the Era of the Renaissance
1077/1076–1052 BC[1]
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Jar of Smendes
Era of the Renaissance:
He was notable for reigning during the Egyptian Renaissance, which was the end of the old kingdom, and the birth of the new kingdom.
Wehem Mesut
The period of ancient Egyptian history known as wehem mesut or, more commonly, Whm Mswt (Manuel de Codage transliteration: wHm msw.t) can be literally translated as Repetition of Births, but is usually referred to as the (Era of the) Renaissance.[1]
Therefore, Smendes, is almost definitely the person being referred to in Celtic legends.
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2020.09.14 01:01 StevenStevens43 Battle of Magh Tuireadh

Battle of Magh Tuireadh
Irish divide:
Just like in my previous thread, when i showed how there truly is a natural divide between England and Scotland, and Wales and England, and Cornwall and England, when rivers and streams, regardless of how little the streams become, do in fact completely 100% seperate England from Scotland, between the Humber and Lake district, Irish sea and Bristol Channel, and Irish sea and English channel, respectively.
However there is actually also a "natural" Irish divide, which pre-dates any political divide.
Though, the natural divide is not actually a North South divide, like the political divide.
But instead, an East West divide.
You see, as you can find out for yourself "right now" simply by going to google maps, and playing a game of "Maze", and find the stream that divides Ireland, you will find that between Lough Gill (Sligo), and Limerick, there is a river, that goes deep inland, before becoming a stream.
But at no point does the stream become disconnected, meaning, that the land between Limerick and Sligo, which makes up for a huge part of West Ireland, is in fact a seperate Isle from East Ireland.
Google maps
Now, it may appear that the "troubles" in Ireland date back to 1921, when Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland became partitioned.
In December 1921, the Anglo-Irish Treaty was concluded between the British government and representatives of the Second Dáil. It gave Ireland complete independence in its home affairs and practical independence for foreign policy, but an opt-out clause allowed Northern Ireland to remain within the United Kingdom,
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Anglo-Irish treaty
1st May 1169 AD:
Others however, may say, no way (or words to that effect), it all goes back to what led up to the partition in the first place, which was the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1st May 1169.
Norman and English invasions
On 1 May 1169, an expedition of Cambro-Norman knights, with an army of about 600 men, landed at Bannow Strand in present-day County Wexford. It was led by Richard de Clare, known as 'Strongbow' owing to his prowess as an archer.[51] The invasion, which coincided with a period of renewed Norman expansion, was at the invitation of Dermot Mac Murrough, King of Leinster.[52]
Link for photo
Norman castle
River Lee:
There is however a "third" seperation in Ireland.
Ireland, "is" indeed sperated from North and South.
But this seperation is not in Northern Ireland.
It is actually in Southern Ireland, between Whiddy Island in the North Atlantic, and Cork, flowing out in to the Irish sea.
It is actually only a small portion, but is indeed a 100% seperation, thus a seperate Isle.
Google maps
Fir Bolg:
This could explain why, in Irish legends, we have "three" seperate line-ages, with the first settlers in Ireland, before leaving Ireland again, and then re-returning.
Fir Bolg
In medieval Irish myth, the Fir Bolg (also spelt Firbolg and Fir Bholg) are the fourth group of people to settle in Ireland. They are descended from the Muintir Nemid, an earlier group who abandoned Ireland and went to different parts of Europe. Those who went to Greece became the Fir Bolg and eventually return to the now-uninhabited Ireland. After ruling it for some time, they are overthrown by the invading Tuatha Dé Danann.[1]
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Fir Bolg
Tuatha de Dannan:
The second are Tuatha de Dannan.
The Tuatha de Dannan are most likely the same people as the Fir-Bolg.
Quite simply, when they left Ireland they were the Fir-bolg.
Those that remained, continued to be the Fir-Bolg.
But when the Fir-Bolg returned, they were now known as the Tuatha de Dannan, giving the impression of a slightly seperate peoples.
Tuatha de Dannan
The Tuath(a) Dé Danann (Irish: [t̪ˠuəhə dʲeː d̪ˠan̪ˠən̪ˠ], meaning "the folk of the goddess Danu)"),
Link for photo
Tuatha de Dannan
Danish tribes:
And the Tuatha de Dannan are most likely Danish tribes that have invaded Ireland, as "Tuatha" actually means "tribe".
The Old Irish word tuath (plural tuatha) means "people, tribe, nation";
However, the Indigenous, are most likely the Fomorions.
They are most likely the same peoples as those that lived under Queen Gwendolans rule in Cornwall.
The Fomorians (Old Irish: Fomóire, Modern Irish: Fomhóraigh or Fomhóire)[1] are a supernatural race in Irish mythology. They are often portrayed as hostile and monstrous beings who come from under the sea or the earth. Later, they were portrayed as giants and sea raiders. They are enemies of Ireland's first settlers and opponents of the Tuatha Dé Danann,[2]
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Now Ireland likely has a similar history to Britain.
With Britain being connected to European mainland until 6500 BC, it is likely that the many of the inhabitants of Britain were likely a bit more Eurasian, than Norse.
Doggerland was an area of land, now submerged beneath the southern North Sea, that connected Britain to continental Europe. It was flooded by rising sea levels around 6500–6200 BC.
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10,500 BC:
This might suggest, that the earliest inhabitants to arrive in Ireland around 10,500 BC, after the melting of the Ice-caps, were more of an Ahrensburgian mixture of Eurasian Messe-Aryan, than pure Aryan.
And contemporary scholarship and archaeological understanding, does support this idea.
Contemporary historians do believe that it was not until the 3rd Millennia that the first Celts began arriving in Ireland.
Emergence of Celtic Ireland
The most recent genetic research strongly associates the spread of Indo-European languages (including Celtic) through Western Europe with a people bringing a composite Beaker culture, with its arrival in Britain and Ireland dated to around the middle of the third millennium BC.[21]
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History of Hibernia
The battle of Magh Tuireadh:
Therefore, the troubles in Ireland, likely go all the way back to the battle of Magh Tuireadh in approximately 1477 BC, when the three factions of Fir-Bolg, Tuatha de Dannan, and Fomorions, all fought it out.
Cath Maige Tuired
Cath Maige Tuired (modern spelling: Cath Maighe Tuireadh; transl. "The Battle of Magh Tuireadh") is the name of two saga texts of the Mythological Cycle of Irish mythology. It refers to two separate battles in Connacht: the first in the territory of Conmhaícne Cúile Tuireadh near Cong, County Mayo,[1] the second near Lough Arrow in County Sligo. The two texts tell of battles fought by the Tuatha Dé Danann, the first against the Fir Bolg, and the second against the Fomorians.

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2020.09.13 21:09 StevenStevens43 Learn Albannach. Learn your history

Learn Albannach. Learn your history
According to legend, Brutus became the first King of Britain in the year 1112 BC, and he settles in a city on the banks of the River Thames which would later become known as Trinovantum, and even later, London.
Historia regum britannia
Brutus then founds a city on the banks of the River Thames, which he calls Troia Nova, or New Troy. The name is in time corrupted to Trinovantum, and the city is later called London.[13] He creates laws for his people and rules for twenty-four years. After his death he is buried in Trinovantum, and the island is divided between his three sons: Locrinus (England), Albanactus (Scotland) and Kamber (Wales).
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Albania flag
Now, you may wonder why i am waving the Albanian flag, to depict the Island of Britain. Should i not be waving the Union jack?
Well no, because at it's roots, the island of Britain was originally named Albion, which derives from the etymological Gaelic root word "Albio", and Albania, derives from the exact same root word.
You see, when the Greeks Latinised the word to Albion, and we think this means that the name Albion, comes from the Greeks, and therefore that means the belief that there is no earlier reference available for the island of Britain being referred to as Albion, and thus everything before this Greek attestation must be purely mythological, is completely wrong, and misunderstanding the evolution of language.
Quite simply, the Greeks got the the word Albion, from the already existing Gaelic word, "Albio".
All the Greeks done was Latinise the word, to better suit their dialect, and writing system.
Simple as that.
The oldest attestation of the toponym comes from the Greek language (Ἀλβίων)[6] and Latinised as Albiōn (genitive Albionis), derives from the Proto-Celtic nasal stem \Albi̯iū* (oblique \Albiion-) and survived in Old Irish as *Albu (genitive Albann). The name originally referred to Britain as a whole, but was later restricted to Caledonia (giving the modern Scottish Gaelic name for Scotland, Alba). The root *albiio- is also found in Gaulish and Galatian albio- ("world") and Welsh elfydd (elbid, "earth, world, land, country, district"). It may be related to other European and Mediterranean toponyms such as Alpes, Albania
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The Alan family:
Now, take a moment to go and read my article on the Alan family, and you might find out just how influential and widespread the royal family were.
At a stretch, the Alans may have even sat on the Egyptian throne for a short period around the 500's BC.
Now, in the legends of Brutus of Troy, Brutus even claims to be an "Alan".
What actually appears to be happening here, is that Albio' and his sons, Locrinus, Albanactus, and Kamber, are being Latinised to, Brutus, Francus, Alamanus and Romanus.
The Romans are simply re-writing Albino history in to their own language, and this is leading to confusion.
Historia Britonnum
Yet another Brutus, son of Hisicion, son of Alanus the first European, also traced back across many generations to Japheth, is referred to in the Historia Brittonum. This Brutus's brothers were Francus, Alamanus and Romanus, also ancestors of significant European nations.[10]
Now, according to the Romans, Brutus was descended from Japeth.
But in actual fact, this is inaccurate.
Albio, was actually the grandson, of Aeneas.
Historia Britonnum
[1] A more detailed story, set before the foundation of Rome, follows, in which Brutus is the grandson or great grandson of Aeneas
Alba longa:
In reality, Albios bloodline, and name, would be more consistant with the terms Alba, and Aeneas, which would simply have been a Gaelic dialectual deviant of the word Alanus, prior to the Messenian Roman invasion in the 600's BC, when Alba-Longa became Rome, and Albio became Brutus.
Alba longa
Alba Longa (occasionally written Albalonga in Italian sources) was an ancient Latin) city in Central Italy, 12 miles (19 km) southeast of Rome, in the Alban Hills. Founder and head of the Latin League, it was destroyed by the Roman Kingdom around the middle of the 7th century BC, and its inhabitants were forced to settle in Rome. In legend, Romulus and Remus, founders of Rome, had come from the royal dynasty of Alba Longa, which in Virgil's Aeneid had been the bloodline of Aeneas,
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Alba longa
Now, according to legend, "Albio" gave Cambria/Cymru (Wales) to his son Camber.
Camber, also Kamber, was the legendary first king of Cambria, according to the Geoffrey of Monmouth in the first part of his influential 12th-century pseudohistory Historia Regum Britanniae. According to Geoffrey, Cambria, the classical name for Wales, was named for him.
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Now, what evidence do we have for a Gaelic root word for Wales pre-dating any Roman attestations?
Well, we have Cimmerians out fighting a war in the near east around 1000 BC.
And likely led by an Alan.
Coincidentally their red dot distribution leads directly to Alba longa.
The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek: Κιμμέριοι, Kimmérioi) were a nomadic Indo-European people, who appeared about 1000 BC[1] and are mentioned later in 8th century BC in Assyrian records. While the Cimmerians were often described by contemporaries as culturally "Scythian", they evidently differed ethnically from the Scythians proper, who also displaced and replaced the Cimmerians.[2]
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Cimmerian distribution
Now, the scholarly understanding that the word Cimmerian, is in fact Brythonic, is now quite contemporary.
It is also very likely that this particular Brythonic dialect relates more to the Welsh branch.
The etymology of Cymro "Welshman" (plural: Cymry), connected to the Cimmerians by 17th-century Celticists, is now accepted by Celtic linguists as being derived from a Brythonic word *kom-brogos, meaning "compatriot".[21]
However, again, confusion sets in here, as Brythonic is actually Latinised.
In actual fact, the language was "not" Brythonic, it was "Albannach".
And as we have already established, either on this article, or previous, Alba once pertained to the entire Island of Albion, which we now call Britain, after the Roman invasion and the erection of Hadrians wall, when Alba got pushed North, to be replaced by this "Br".
Albannach, Scottish Gaelic for "Scottish,"
Link for photo#/media/File:Albannach_live.JPG)
And, this brings me to Albanactus.
The supposed youngest son of "Albio".
Albanactus supposedly inherited from Albio, the land North of the Humber, which they named Albany.
In addition to this, you will also find that Humber is the river that flows between the North sea, and Irish sea, and even today, the land North of the Humber, and South of the Humber, is pretty much 100% disconnected by rivers and streams.
To find out what the old border between England and Scotland was, simply click on the link i provide, zoom in, and follow the water.
There are however hundreds of streams.
Do you remember that game "maze" when you get a pencil and try to find your way out? Well, you can do this on google maps, and find the stream that connects the irish sea to the North sea in Yorkshire.
Once you have found it.
Please then go to the Severn river, and find out the old border between Loegria and Camber, by finding the Stream which connects the severn, to the Irish sea.
Albanactus, according to Geoffrey of Monmouth, was the founding king of Albania or Albany. He is in effect Geoffrey's eponym for Scotland.[1] His territory was that north of the River Humber.[2]
Link for google maps
Now, what evidence do we have for ancient Albanians?
Well, we have the Scoloti, who were led by the Alans, and united themselves with the Cimmerians, in Scythia, whilst out in the near east.
.[10][13] Based in what is modern-day Ukraine and southern Russia, the Scythians called themselves Scoloti and were led by a nomadic warrior aristocracy known as the Royal Scythians.
In the 7th century BC, the Scythians crossed the Caucasus and frequently raided the Middle East along with the Cimmerians, playing an important role in the political developments of the region.[10][
Link for photo
Alba flag
Now, Locrinus was another son of Albio, and was given the land of Loegria (England).
However, a little lie is told here.
In actual fact, the land he was awarded, was nothing like the equivalent of todays "England".
He was awarded the land south of East riding of Yorkshire, and the Lake district.
Locrinus was a legendary king of the Britons), as recounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth. He was the oldest son of Brutus and a descendant of the Trojans through Aeneas. Following Brutus's death, Britain was divided amongst the three sons, with Locrinus receiving the portion roughly equivalent to England,
Link for photo
English flag
Isle of Cornwall:
Now, if you go google maps, you will find that Cornwall, is actually 100% seperated from British mainland, by rivers and streams, running between River Fowey, flowing out in to the Channel, and the River Gannel, flowing out in to the Irish sea.
Google maps
Queen Gwendolen:
Now this explains why Queen Gwendolen found herself fighting Loegria, from this tiny little Isle she was patronised with.
Queen Gwendolen, also known as Gwendolin, or Gwendolyn (Latin: Guendoloēna) was a legendary ruler of ancient Britain. She is said to have been queen during the 11th century BC.
As told by Geoffrey of Monmouth in his pseudohistorical account Historia Regum Britanniae, she was the repudiated queen of King Locrinus until she defeated her husband in battle at the River Stour. This river was the dividing line between Cornwall and Loegria, two key locations in ancient Britain. After defeating the king, she took on the leadership of the Britons, becoming their first queen regnant.
Link for photo
Flag of cornwall
Now, Albio awarded Corineus with the land of Cornwall.
Though, Corineus was not one of his relations.
It would appear Corineus was getting palmed off.
Corineus, in medieval British legend, was a prodigious warrior, a fighter of giants, and the eponymous founder of Cornwall.
Link for photo
So what does it all mean?
Well, it probably means that in actual fact, the Scottish, English, Welsh, divide actually pre-dates Hadrians wall and Offas dyke, and actually has boundaries drawn from nature, and the Island of Albion has always been inhabited by peoples that agree they share the same island, but remain slightly autonomous, due to slight natural differences.
It also means that it is likely that the Roman-Brit, pre-dates the half cast Romano-Brit left by the Romans in the southern lands, and actually the Southern lands from the Humber down, were always quite highly influenced by a Romano-Brit, that was probably more of a Messian-Albino, back then.
At least before an Alan invasion of Aryans from Scandinavian descent in around 1112 BC, when Messian-Albinos likely got pushed to cornwall.
This would be due to the fact that Britain used to be connected with Eurasia, before doggerland sank in 6,500 BC, and therefore, before a "White" invasion, Britain would have probably been a little more Eaurasian.
Doggerland was an area of land, now submerged beneath the southern North Sea, that connected Britain to continental Europe. It was flooded by rising sea levels around 6500–6200 BC.
Link for photo
And, like it or not, the word "Albion", does mean white.
Which would strongly suggest that the Alans were "White".
the Proto-Indo-European root \albho-*, meaning "white" (cf. Ancient Greek ἀλφός, Latin albus ).
Alba Albania:
I will bring this article now, to a close, by reminding everyone about the Alba Albanian flag

Alba Albanian flag
submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]

2020.09.13 12:00 nnomadic Dating Bosigran’s prehistoric field systems - Prehistoric earthworks at Bosigran, in west Cornwall, have been directly dated using OSL for the first time, shedding new light on the area’s ancient field systems.

Dating Bosigran’s prehistoric field systems - Prehistoric earthworks at Bosigran, in west Cornwall, have been directly dated using OSL for the first time, shedding new light on the area’s ancient field systems. submitted by nnomadic to geoarchaeology [link] [comments]

2020.09.12 02:44 StevenStevens43 Joan of Arc I

Joan of Arc I
Brutus of Troy:
According to Celtic mythology, Brutus of Troy was the first king of Britain in 1112 BC.
Brutus of Troy
Brutus, or Brute of Troy, is a legendary descendant of the Trojan hero Aeneas, known in medieval British history as the eponymous founder and first king of Britain.
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Aeneas Silvius:
Brutus is supposed to be the Brother of Aeneas Silvius..
.[1] A more detailed story, set before the foundation of Rome, follows, in which Brutus is the grandson or great grandson of Aeneas
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Aeneas Silvius
Alba longa:
And they are both considered to be descended from the first king of Alba longa.
Aeneas Silvias
Aeneas Silvius (said to have reigned 1110-1079 BC)[1] is the son of Silvius), in some versions grandson of Ascanius and great-grandson, grandson or son of Aeneas. He is the third in the list of the mythical kings of Alba Longa in Latium, and the Silvii regarded him as the founder of their house.[2]
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Alba longa
Latin league:
Now, Alba longa, is, in actual fact, quite factually an early aristocratic location, approximately 12 miles from modern day Rome, that was subjugated by the early Romans in the 7th Century, and as we have already established in a previous thread, named "Proto-Greek trojans", Latin was a language that the Romans picked up from the Dorian invasion, which was a Hittite invasion, from Indo-Aryans.
Alba longa
Alba Longa (occasionally written Albalonga in Italian sources) was an ancient Latin) city in Central Italy, 12 miles (19 km) southeast of Rome, in the Alban Hills. Founder and head of the Latin League, it was destroyed by the Roman Kingdom around the middle of the 7th century BC, and its inhabitants were forced to settle in Rome.
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Alba location
I would also just like to quickly point out, that Alba "has always" either, been the name for Scotland, or alternative Gaelic name for Scotland, and was even the name for the Island of Britain, before the Romans pushed the Alba border up to Hadrians wall.
Alba (English: /ˈælbə/) is the Scottish Gaelic name (pronounced [ˈal̪ˠapə]) for Scotland. It is cognate with the Irish term Alba (gen. Alban, dat. Albain) and the Manx term Nalbin, the two other Goidelic Insular Celtic languages, as well as contemporary words used in Cornish (Alban) and Welsh (Yr Alban), both of which are Brythonic Insular Celtic languages. (The third surviving Brythonic language, Breton, instead uses Bro-Skos, meaning 'country of the Scots'.) In the past these terms were names for Great Britain as a whole, related to the Brythonic name Albion.
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Now Brutus was not the only "Trojan" that had been supposedly enslaved in Greece, to have ended up escaping enslavement, and becoming a king of Britain.
Corineus partnered Brutus, and became king of Cornwall.
Corineus, in medieval British legend, was a prodigious warrior, a fighter of giants, and the eponymous founder of Cornwall.
According to Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain (1136), he led the descendants of the Trojans who fled with Antenor) after the Trojan War and settled on the coasts of the Tyrrhenian Sea. After Brutus, a descendant of the Trojan prince Aeneas, had been exiled from Italy and liberated the enslaved Trojans in Greece, he encountered Corineus and his people
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Corineus. likely location stonehenge
Trojan war:
Now, whilst all we have for the Trojan war, is incoherent, likely usurped myths and legends, this does not take away that fact, that at this period in time, there truly was a war being fought between the Indo-European Hittite empire, and Greece.
As we established in the previous "Proto-Greek trojan thread, the Kaskas were a Greek army that attacked the Hittites, causing the Hittites to add Greece to their list of enemies.
Early history
The Kaska, probably originating from the eastern shore of the Propontis,[4] may have displaced the speakers of the Palaic language from their home in Pala).[citation needed]
The Kaska first appear in the Hittite prayer inscriptions that date from the reign of Hantili II, c. 1450 BC, and make references to their movement into the ruins of the holy city of Nerik.[5] During the reign of Hantili's son, Tudhaliya II (c. 1430 BC), "Tudhaliya's 3rd campaign was against the Kaskas."[6] His successor Arnuwanda I composed a prayer for the gods to return Nerik to the empire; he also mentioned Kammama and Zalpuwa as cities which he claimed had been Hittite but which were now under the Kaskas. Arnuwanda attempted to mollify some of the Kaska tribes by means of tribute.
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Trojan horse
Ramesses III:
Now, as we have already established in many previous threads, the real enemies of the Hittites, were the Egyptians, fighting over the land of Mesopotamia.
And Ramesses III won a battle against Sea peoples, and those that he did not kill, he enslaved and enlisted in to the Egyptian army, and then rehomed in Dan, in Canaan.
Tenure of constant war
Ramesses III incorporated the Sea Peoples as subject peoples and settled them in southern Canaan. Their presence in Canaan may have contributed to the formation of new states in this region such as Philistia after the collapse of the Egyptian Empire in Asia. Ramesses III was also compelled to fight invading Libyan tribesmen in two major campaigns in Egypt's Western Delta in his Year 5 and Year 11 respectively.[6]
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Ramesses III
Northerners from all lands:
And of course, as we have already established in previous threads, Merneptah described the Sea peoples as being "Northerners from all lands".
[Beginning of the victory that his majesty achieved in the land of Libya] -I, Ekwesh, Teresh, Lukka, Sherden, Shekelesh, Northerners coming from all lands.
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Romulus and Remus:
Ok, so, now that i have implied that it would not be in the least bit unbelievable, that Hittites from Northern regions, did indeed escape enslavement whilst making war in the Medes, during this precise period, i will now go to one of Romes greatest legends.
Apparently the founders of Rome, were Romulus and Remus, from the first king of Alba.
Alba longa
In legend, Romulus and Remus, founders of Rome, had come from the royal dynasty of Alba Longa, which in Virgil's Aeneid had been the bloodline of Aeneas, a son of Venus).[1]
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She wolf and Twins
Cunedagius & Marganus
Now, if there is any truth in the Romulus & Remus legend, it would almost definitely mean that Rome was founded by Brits, from Albion.
This is due to the fact, that the Romulus and Remus legend, is almost definitely taken from the Celtic legend, of Cordelia.
Cordelia of Britain
Queen Cordelia (or Cordeilla) was a legendary Queen of the Britons), as recounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth. She was the youngest daughter of Leir and the second ruling queen of pre-Roman Britain.
Cordelia of Britain:
You see, Cordelia of Britain, is said to have been the first born princess of Queen Goneril and King Regan, right around the time of the Romulus and Remus narrative.
Now, Cordelias parents decided to split up her kingdom between her younger brothers and sisters, and she was so displeased with this, that she ended up being deported from Britain, and went to live in Gaul, with king of the Franks.
However, a few years later, she came back to Britain with the King of the Franks and his army, and conquered Britain.
King Aganippus temporarly became king of Britain, before dying, and Cordelia became queen of Britain.
A proper she-wolf?
Leir became exiled from Britain and fled to Cordelia in Gaul, seeking a restoration of his throne which had been seized by the husbands of his other daughters. She raised an army and invaded Britain, defeating the ruling dukes and restoring Leir. After Leir's death three years later, Cordelia's husband Aganippus died, and she returned to Britain and was crowned queen.[1]
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Death of Cordelia:
Cordelia ruled peacefully for five years.
But her sisters sons despised her, and they killed her, and crowned themselves.
However Cuniedagius ended up killing Marganus.
Cordelia ruled peacefully for five years until her sisters' sons, Cunedagius and Marganus, came of age. As the dukes of Cornwall and Albany, respectively, they despised the rule of a woman when they claimed proper descent to rule. They raised armies and fought against Cordelia, who fought in person at numerous battles. She was captured and imprisoned by her nephews. In her grief, she committed suicide. Cunedagius succeeded her in the kingship of Britain in the lands southwest of the Humber. Marganus ruled the region northeast of the Humber. Civil war broke out between them soon after,[1] with Marganus' being defeated and killed.
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Cordelias execution
Perhaps Cunedagius killed Marganus over rulership of Rome?
After-all, Cunedagius son, and next king of Britain, was named "Rivallo".
Sounds Italian.
Cunedagius killed him and became king of all of Britain. He ruled all of Britain for 33 years and was succeeded by his son Rivallo.[2]
Geoffrey synchronizes Cunedagius' reign with the ministry of the Jewish prophet Isaiah and the founding of Rome by Romulus and Remus.[2] Both events are dated to the 8th century BC.
And it is not true that Rome was only founded "after" the Romulus and Remus legend.
Archaeological evidence supports Rome being an established City, dating back to the 8th Century BC.
Earliest history
These developments, which according to archaeological evidence took place during the mid-eighth century BC, can be considered as the "birth" of the city.[21]
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14,000 years:
And archaeological evidence also suggests, that the city of Rome was slowly built by developing villages, dating as far back as the Younger dryas
Earliest history
While there have been discoveries of archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from approximately 14,000 years ago, the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.[7]
Link for photo
Pyramid of Gaius
submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]

2020.09.09 23:48 SuperHotUKDeals Two night Clifftop stay Lizard Cornwall - Hotel with daily breakfast for 2 people + cream tea = £103.20 with code (new account) @ Groupon

The following description is not provided by this sub or any of it's contributors.
£103.20 - Groupon
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submitted by SuperHotUKDeals to SuperHotUKDeals [link] [comments]

2020.09.06 22:30 StevenStevens43 Ancient Cymru

Ancient Cymru
Cymru is the old Welsh name for Wales.
Wales (Welsh: Cymru [ˈkəm.rɨ] (📷listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
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Welsh flag
Now, Aryan looking people can be traced all the way back to at least 2600 BC in positions of high power in Ancient egypt.
There is copious amounts of evidence for this.
I will provide "one" piece of evidence for this thread.
Mereruka served during the Sixth Dynasty of Egypt as one of Egypt's most powerful officials at a time when the influence of local state noblemen was increasing in wealth and power. Mereruka held numerous titles along with that of Vizier), which made him the most powerful person in Egypt after the king himself.
Link for photo
Ancient Egypt had pretty much been under foreign influence and rulership, for much of Ancient Egypts history.
However this changed again, in 1549 BC, when "not for the first time", a native ancient Egyptian launched a successful Theban uprising against foreign rulers, and expelled them from Egypt.
Ahmose I
Ahmose I (Ancient Egyptian: jꜥḥ ms(j.w), reconstructed /ʔaʀaħ'ma:sjə/ (MK), Egyptological pronunciation Ahmose, sometimes written as Amosis or Aahmes, meaning "Iah (the Moon) is born"[5][6]) was a pharaoh and founder of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, classified as the first dynasty of the New Kingdom of Egypt, the era in which ancient Egypt achieved the peak of its power. He was a member of the Theban royal house, the son of pharaoh Seqenenre Tao and brother of the last pharaoh of the Seventeenth dynasty, Kamose. During the reign of his father or grandfather, Thebes rebelled against the Hyksos, the rulers of Lower Egypt. When he was seven years old, his father was killed,[7] and he was about ten when his brother died of unknown causes after reigning only three years. Ahmose I assumed the throne after the death of his brother,[8] and upon coronation became known as nb-pḥtj-rꜥ "The Lord of Strength is Ra".
During his reign, Ahmose completed the conquest and expulsion of the Hyksos from the Nile Delta, restored Theban rule over the whole of Egypt and successfully reasserted Egyptian power in its formerly subject territories of Nubia and Canaan.
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Ahmose I
Thutmose III:
However the native ancient Egyptians did not leave it here. And one of Ahmose I's descendants would lead the greatest military invasion in to enemy lands, that the Ancient egyptian empire ever saw.
Thutmose III
Widely considered a military genius by historians, Thutmose III conducted at least 16 campaigns in 20 years.[14] He was an active expansionist ruler, sometimes called Egypt's greatest conqueror or "the Napoleon of Egypt."[15] He is recorded to have captured 350 cities during his rule and conquered much of the Near East from the Euphrates to Nubia during seventeen known military campaigns. He was the first pharaoh after Thutmose I to cross the Euphrates, doing so during his campaign against Mitanni.
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Thutmose III
Mitanni kings:
Now, it must be pointed out, that Thutmose was now subjugating kings that are on the outskirts of a European empire, as the Mitanni kings, even though their kingdom is populated by Akkadian/Sumerian speakers, are in fact Indo-Aryan kings.
They are likely on the retreat, from this Hyksos conquest, but they also likely have an empire of their own they can call upon, if required.
While the Mitanni kings were supposedly Indo-Aryan, they used the language of the local people, which was at that time a non-Indo-European language, Hurrian.
Link for photo
Hittite empire:
Now, to the left of the kings of Mitanni, there was an empire named "the Hittite empire".
The Hittites came down and became native Egypts biggest rival, and immediately put the Egyptian expansion in to reverse.
Between the 15th and 13th centuries BCE, the Empire of Hattusa, conventionally called the Hittite Empire, came into conflict with the New Kingdom of Egypt, the Middle Assyrian Empire and the empire of the Mitanni for control of the Near East.
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Hittite empire
Now, the Hittites were not native to Antolia, they were actually european.
Originally, they were likely from the Caucasus, pretty close to the Scandinavian land bridge between Russia and Finland.
They came from Old europe, which makes them 50% Aryan, at the very least.
You might also want to ask yourself, how on earth did this empire just suddenly become powerful enough to put the Ancient egyptian empire in to reverse?
According to Anthony, steppe herders, archaic Proto-Indo-European speakers, spread into the lower Danube valley about 4200–4000 BC, either causing or taking advantage of the collapse of Old Europe).[25] Their languages "probably included archaic Proto-Indo-European dialects of the kind partly preserved later in Anatolian."[26] Their descendants later moved into Anatolia at an unknown time but maybe as early as 3000 BC.[27] According to J. P. Mallory it is likely that the Anatolians reached the Near East from the north either via the Balkans or the Caucasus in the 3rd millennium BC.[28]
Now eventually the Hittites conquered the Egyptian vassalship of Babylonia.
Though the Hittites handed vassalship of Babylonia over to their Kassite allies, thus turning Babylonia in to a Hittite vassal kingdom.
Old kingdom
Mursili continued the conquests of Hattusili I. Mursili's conquests reached southern Mesopotamia and even ransacked Babylon itself in 1531 BC (short chronology).[44] Rather than incorporate Babylonia into Hittite domains, Mursili seems to have instead turned control of Babylonia over to his Kassite allies,
Of course, the Semitic/Sumerian ex babylonians did not give up Babylonia that easily, and likely retreated to a swampy area in Sealand, from were they could continue to conduct hit and run guerrilla warfare upon the Kassites.
Ea-gâmil, the ultimate king of the dynasty, fled to Elam ahead of an invading horde led by Kassite chief Ulam-Buriaš, brother of the king of Babylon Kashtiliash III, who conquered the Sealand, incorporated it into Babylonia and “made himself master of the land.”
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Sealand dynasty:
The Kassites were likely able to defeat the Sealanders with the help of their navy, and add "master of Sealand", to the growing number of Hittite titles.
It is likely that the Kassites were the Naval arm of the Hittite empire, and this is why Babylonia was given to the Kassites.
The perfect area for a naval base, given the Port of UR allowing easy access to the Indian ocean, and port of Tyre offering easy access to the Mediterranaen, as well as easy access to the Euphrates and Tigres.
The Hittites likely had other Western naval groups that were in supervision of Troy.
Sealand dynasty
The Sealand Dynasty, (URU.KÙKI[nb 1][1][2]) or the 2nd Dynasty of Babylon (although it was independent of Amorite-ruled Babylon), very speculatively c. 1732–1460 BC (short chronology), is an enigmatic series of kings attested to primarily in laconic references in the king lists A and B, and as contemporaries recorded on the Assyrian Synchronistic king list A.117. The dynasty, which had broken free of the short lived, and by this time crumbling Babylonian Empire, was named for the province in the far south of Mesopotamia, a swampy region bereft of large settlements which gradually expanded southwards with the silting up of the mouths of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
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Naval bases
Ramesses III:
Rameeses III's reign ended with the end of the Native egyptian empire.
He was able to win a "battle" against the Sea peoples, but unfortunately, the 200 year war against Sea peoples, took it's toll on Egypt, and Egypt fell to the Hittites Libyan allies.
Ramesses III
He led the way by defeating the invaders known as "the Sea Peoples", who had caused destruction in other civilizations and empires. He was able to save Egypt from collapsing at the time when many other empires fell during the Late Bronze Age; however, the damage of the invasions took a toll on Egypt.[1]
Constant war:
Constant war against Libyans, and Sea peoples, took it's toll.
Tenure of constant war
During his long tenure in the midst of the surrounding political chaos of the Late Bronze Age collapse, Egypt was beset by foreign invaders (including the so-called Sea Peoples and the Libyans)
Ramesses II:
Hittite land armies began defeating the crumbling Egyptian land armies, as the Egyptians simply could not handle fighting Sea peoples attacking from boats and rivers, Libyans, at the same time as fighting Hittites in pitch battles.
Third Syria campaign
Egypt's sphere of influence was now restricted to Canaan while Syria fell into Hittite hands.
Merneptah recorded the defeat as being a defeat coming from "Northerners" of all lands.
[Beginning of the victory that his majesty achieved in the land of Libya] -I, Ekwesh, Teresh, Lukka, Sherden, Shekelesh, Northerners coming from all lands.
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23rd dynasty:
By the 23rd dynasty, Libyans would assume the throne of Egypt.
Libyans had been one of Egypts longest lasting enemies.
23rd dynasty of egypt
The Twenty-third Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXIII, alternatively 23rd Dynasty or Dynasty 23) is usually classified as the third dynasty of the ancient Egyptian Third Intermediate Period. This dynasty consisted of a number of Meshwesh ancient Libyan (Berber) kings, who ruled either as pharaohs or independent kings of parts of Upper Egypt from 880 BC to 720 BC, and pharaohs from 837 BC to 728 BC.
Now, i would like to go back to the earliest known roots for the Hittite empire.
Ukraine would be a good start, as Ukraine is pretty close to the Caucasus.
Ukraine (Ukrainian: Україна, romanized: Ukrayina, pronounced [ʊkrɐˈjinɐ] (📷listen); Russian: Украина, tr. Ukraina, IPA: [ʊkrɐˈinə]) is a country in Eastern Europe.[10] It is bordered by Russia to the east and north-east; Belarus to the north; Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west; and Romania, Moldova, and the Black Sea to the south. Ukraine also borders the Crimean Peninsula to its south, which Russia annexed from Ukraine in 2014, though Ukraine still continues to claim the territory.[11] Including the Crimean Peninsula, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2 (233,062 sq mi),[12] making it the second-largest country by area in Europe after Russia,
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Now, in around 700 BC there was a tribe/army turned up in the Ukraine named the Scoloti.
This tribe allied themselves to the already existing tribe/army, in this region, named "the Crimmerians".
You have likely heard of the Scoloti.
Another name for them, is Scythians.
The Scythians are a people at the centre of the age of migrations, were tribes begin branching off in their seperate directions across europe, likely at the end of the fall of the Hittite empire.
The migrations, take the exact same root as the previous migrations, only, this time, in the opposite direction.
Based in what is modern-day Ukraine and southern Russia, the Scythians called themselves Scoloti and were led by a nomadic warrior aristocracy known as the Royal Scythians.
In the 7th century BC, the Scythians crossed the Caucasus and frequently raided the Middle East along with the Cimmerians, playing an important role in the political developments of the region.[10]
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Age of migrations
Now, according to Norse-mythology, the first Swedish kings arrived in Sweden at the end of the age of Migrations.
The Ynglings were a legendary dynasty of kings, supposedly originating from Sweden. It can refer to the clans of the Scylfings (Old Norse Skilfingar), the semi-legendary royal Swedish clan during the Age of Migrations,
In fact, they "usurped" already existing Swedish thrones.
Onela was according to Beowulf a Swedish king, the son of Ongentheow and the brother of Ohthere. He usurped the Swedish throne, but was killed by his nephew Eadgils, who won by hiring foreign assistance.
Now Cimmerians pre-dated the Scythians in this region, though they did ally themselves with the Scythians.Scoloti, suggesting they already had some cultural association, though in fact, they were slightly seperate peoples.
The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek: Κιμμέριοι, Kimmérioi) were a nomadic Indo-European people, who appeared about 1000 BC[1] and are mentioned later in 8th century BC in Assyrian records. While the Cimmerians were often described by contemporaries as culturally "Scythian", they evidently differed ethnically from the Scythians proper, who also displaced and replaced the Cimmerians
It is to do with the fact that Doggerland once connected britain to France, and therefore Britain was a little more Eurasian in genetics than those from the house of Ynglings, that are pure Aryans.
Link for photo
The Scotoli would actually later turn on the Cimmerians, and send them in to Germany.
the Scythians replaced the Cimmerians as the dominant power on the Pontic Steppe in the 8th century BC.[10
Royal family:
The Cimmerians did not stand a chance against the Scotoli/Scythians, as the Royal family were Scotoli.
Scoloti and were led by a nomadic warrior aristocracy known as the Royal Scythians.
Now, it is likely that the "Meshwesh" referred to by Ramesses III as being one of the many groups which made up the Sea-peoples, the Meshwesh were likely Cimmerians.
Tenure of constant war
internal strife which would eventually lead to the collapse of the Twentieth Dynasty. In Year 8 of his reign, the Sea Peoples, including Peleset, Denyen, Shardana, Meshwesh of the sea, and Tjekker, invaded Egypt by land and sea.
Welsh man:
Now, the reason for this, is that Cimmerian translates in to the old Brythonic language as "Welshman".
This theory is accepted now, so much, that most scholars and historians now accept, that the Cimmerians were under over-lordship
Early modern historians asserted Cimmerian descent for the Celts or the Germans, arguing from the similarity of Cimmerii to Cimbri or Cymry. The etymology of Cymro "Welshman" (plural: Cymry), connected to the Cimmerians by 17th-century Celticists, is now accepted by Celtic linguists as being derived from a Brythonic word *kom-brogos, meaning "compatriot".[21] The Cambridge Ancient History classifies the Maeotians as either a people of Cimmerian ancestry or as Caucasian under Iranian overlordship.[22]
Does this mean that the Cimmerians were Welsh?
Not exactly.
It means that Brythonic speaking people with origins in Briton were in the middle to near east, fighting wars, during this period, and were likely fighting for the legendary, but most likely, factual, house of Ynglings.
It also means, it is likely not unbelievable in the slightest, that in 900 BC, a man named Brutus turned up on the shores of cornwall in a boat, and became the first King of Britain.
Brutus of Troy:
Link for photo
Brutus, or Brute of Troy, is a legendary descendant of the Trojan hero Aeneas, known in medieval British history as the eponymous founder and first king of Britain. This legend first appears in the Historia Brittonum, an anonymous 9th-century historical compilation to which commentary was added by Nennius, but is best known from the account given by the 12th-century chronicler Geoffrey of Monmouth in his Historia Regum Britanniae.

It would actually be more unbelievable, that this legend, is not true. Given what we know about contemporary history.
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2020.09.03 00:39 LordDakier Need Tips Playing As Cornwall Early Date

So I've been playing House Cerneu and finding it a real struggle compared with CK2 where I united Britain. Has anybody got any tips? I'm surrounded by major powers and dealing with the viking invasions too.
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2020.09.02 11:43 helenac43 Billed and received CCJ for car I didn't own.

England law
Morning! Bit of a long one this but here goes..
Oh! Side note, did ask several local solicitors if they could help, their initial fees were over and around £700+vat....
So I did initially own this car. I was run off the road in it by an old driver back in 2015 and the insurance company wrote it off. I gave/sold it to a local scrap yard and that was the end of it. Scroll forward to present day, I've come back from travelling UK/Europe and have been staying with partner and his mum while searching for a house/flat near my new place of work for my daughter and I who us joining me up here from Cornwall. Not one letting agent will rent to us. Why? Because it turns out, I have a CCJ against me. This CCJ is for parking charges for the car that got written off back in 2015. The parking charges are for 2016.. cost is £264. I have the slip if paper from the log book the scrap yard stamped and date stamped. ( thank God!!) Spoke to the court, I can appeal etc which will cost me just over £260 ish.. They have sent the documents to me and It will take around 8 weeks to sort. In the meantime, we managed to get a crappy tiny flat but its somewhere but we can't move again to a better place, because of this CCJ. or apply for credit or loans or even a mortgage, should I choose to. Can I sue the scrap yard for the money I pay out for the removal of the CCJ? And if so, how can I do that? Can I do it without using a solicitor and would it be as effective?
Are there any previous cases that I can look back on/where can I look online? for inspiration to write them a lovely yet enforcing letter.
Any and all replies will be gratefully received. 🙂
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2020.09.01 19:16 crazy_cat_lady55 Hi, I have my G test soon I was hoping to get some help😃

I live in Ottawa and the only place I found for a close date was in Cornwall. I would like to train, if someone knows which routes they will take me or any advice it would be highly appreciated
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2020.08.31 01:41 Calphf Hotfix v1.0.5b Changelog

The New Order: Last Days of Europe - v1.0.5b

Bug Fixes:

Balance Changes:

Quality of Life Improvements:

Other Changes:

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